Du T, Zamore PD. microPrimer: the biogenesis and function of microRNA

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
Development (Impact Factor: 6.46). 12/2005; 132(21):4645-52. DOI: 10.1242/dev.02070
Source: PubMed


Discovered in nematodes in 1993, microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that are related to small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), the small RNAs that guide RNA interference (RNAi). miRNAs sculpt gene expression profiles during plant and animal development. In fact, miRNAs may regulate as many as one-third of human genes. miRNAs are found only in plants and animals, and in the viruses that infect them. miRNAs function very much like siRNAs, but these two types of small RNAs can be distinguished by their distinct pathways for maturation and by the logic by which they regulate gene expression.

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    • "MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that act as negative regulators of gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) (Bartel, 2004; Du, 2005; Eulalio et al., 2008). miRNAs play important roles in cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, stress-response and cell death (Ambros, 2004; Bartel, 2004). "
    Dataset: jcp24730

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    • "In the cytoplasm, miRNAs are unwound into single strand mature miRNAs by helicase. The miRNA strand with relatively lower stability of base-pairing at its 5' end act as guide molecule to reach the target mRNA and is incorporated into a ribonucleoprotein complex RISC, whereas the other miRNA strand is typically degraded (Du and Zamore 2005). Once incorporated into RISC, the miRNA directs AGO1 containing RISCs to its target mRNA for cleavage or translational repression on the basis of sequence complementarity. "
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous approximate 22-24 nucleotide small non-coding regulatory RNAs that play important roles in plants by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. These small regulatory molecules are involved in regulating the intrinsic normal growth of cells and development of organisms as well as in maintaining the integrity of genomes. Furthermore, plant miRNAs have been shown to be involved in various stress responses, such as oxidative, mineral nutrient deficiency, dehydration, and even mechanical stimulus. In this review, we discuss about the plant miRNA biogenesis mechanisms. We also highlight specific examples of miRNAs, which are important gene expression regulators during plant abiotic stresses.
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    • "Pre-miRNAs are bound and exported from nucleus to cytoplasm by the action of enzyme exportin-5 and Ran (RAs-related Nuclear protein) [19]. In the cytoplasm, the pre-miRNAs are further cleaved by RNase III ribonuclease Dicer into a double stranded RNA known as duplex mature RNA [19]. Guided stand (active stand) of duplex RNA is loaded to RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) which targets messenger RNA to degrade or repress translational activity [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The new epidemic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is caused by a type of human coronavirus called MERS-CoV which has global fatality rate of about 30%. We are investigating potential antiviral therapeutics against MERS-CoV by using host microRNAs (miRNAs) which may downregulate viral gene expression to quell viral replication. We computationally predicted potential 13 cellular miRNAs from 11 potential hairpin sequences of MERS-CoV genome. Our study provided an interesting hypothesis that those miRNAs, that is, hsa-miR-628-5p, hsa-miR-6804-3p, hsa-miR-4289, hsa-miR-208a-3p, hsa-miR-510-3p, hsa-miR-18a-3p, hsa-miR-329-3p, hsa-miR-548ax, hsa-miR-3934-5p, hsa-miR-4474-5p, hsa-miR-7974, hsa-miR-6865-5p, and hsa-miR-342-3p, would be antiviral therapeutics against MERS-CoV infection.
    Advances in Bioinformatics 12/2014; 2014:967946. DOI:10.1155/2014/967946
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