Differential involvement of PU.1 and Id2 downstream of TGF-beta1 during Langerhans-cell commitment.
ABSTRACT Langerhans cells (LCs) are highly abundant dendritic cells (DCs) in epidermal and mucosal tissues. The transcription factors PU.1 and Id2 have been implicated as positive regulators of LC development from hematopoietic progenitor cells. LC differentiation from progenitors is absolutely dependent on transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) in vitro as well as in vivo; however, downstream mechanisms are poorly defined. We found that both PU.1 and Id2 are induced by TGF-beta1 in human CD34+ monocyte/LC (M/LC) progenitor cells, and that neither ectopic PU.1 or Id2 alone, nor both together, could replace TGF-beta1 in its instructive function on LC commitment. However, both factors critically contributed to LC differentiation by acting at 2 distinct intersection points. Ectopic PU.1 strongly enhanced TGF-beta1-dependent LC development. Additionally, Notch-induced generation of interstitial-type DCs was associated with PU.1 up-regulation. Thus, PU.1 is generally increased during myeloid DC development. Ectopic Id2 inhibits the acquisition of early monocytic characteristics by cells generated in the absence of TGF-beta1 and also inhibits monocyte induction by alternative stimuli. Since TGF-beta1 represses a default monocyte pathway of common progenitor cells, PU.1 and Id2 seem to modulate lineage options of M/LC precursors, downstream of TGF-beta1.
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ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a fundamental regulator of immune cell development and function. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β1 on the differentiation of human Langerhans cells (LCs) and identified Axl as a key TGF-β1 effector. Axl belongs to the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, and Mer) receptor tyrosine kinase family, whose members function as inhibitors of innate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells and are essential to the prevention of lupus-like autoimmunity. We found that Axl expression is induced by TGF-β1 during LC differentiation and that LC precursors acquire Axl early during differentiation. We also describe prominent steady-state expression as well as inflammation-induced activation of Axl in human epidermal keratinocytes and LCs. TGF-β1-induced Axl enhances apoptotic cell (AC) uptake and blocks proinflammatory cytokine production. The antiinflammatory role of Axl in the skin is reflected in a marked impairment of the LC network preceding spontaneous skin inflammation in mutant mice that lack all three TAM receptors. Our findings highlight the importance of constitutive Axl expression to tolerogenic barrier immunity in the epidermis and define a mechanism by which TGF-β1 enables silent homeostatic clearing of ACs to maintain long-term self-tolerance.Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2012; 209(11):2033-47. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immunosenescence is a result of progressive decline in immune system function with advancing age. Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), belonging to the dendritic cell (DC) family, act as sentinels to play key roles in the skin immune responses. However, it has not been fully elucidated how aging affects development and function of LCs. Here, we systemically analyzed LC development and function during the aging process in C57BL/6J mice, and performed global microRNA (miRNA) gene expression profiles in aged and young LCs. We found that the frequency and maturation of epidermal LCs were significantly reduced in aged mice starting at 12 months of age, while the Langerin expression and ability to phagocytose Dextran in aged LCs were increased compared to LCs from < 6 month old mice. The migration of LCs to draining lymph nodes was comparable between aged and young mice. Functionally, aged LCs were impaired in their capacity to induce OVA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation. Furthermore, the expression of miRNAs in aged epidermal LCs showed a distinct profile compared to young LCs. Most interestingly, aging-regulated miRNAs potentially target TGF-β-dependent and non- TGF-β-dependent signal pathways related to LCs. Overall, our data suggests that aging affects LCs development and function, and that age-regulated miRNAs may contribute to the LC developmental and functional changes in aging.Aging 11/2012; · 4.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The roles of inflammation and immune cell reactivity triggered by amputation have only recently begun to be addressed in investigations of epimorphic regeneration, although studies of tissue repair in mammals clearly show the importance of the immune system in determining the quality of the repair process. Here, we first review inflammation-related work in non-mammalian systems of epimorphic regeneration which suggests that regeneration of an amputated appendage requires continuous modulation of the local immune response, from the first hours after amputation through the period of blastema patterning. We then present data on the effects of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory agents on regeneration of larval Xenopus hindlimbs. Treatment with the glucocorticoid beclomethasone immediately after amputation inhibits regeneration in regeneration-complete stage 53 limbs. Other anti-inflammatory agents, including the inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity celecoxib and diclofenac, applied similarly to larvae amputated at stage 55, when the capacity for limb regeneration is normally being lost, restore regenerative capacity. This suggests that although injury-related events sensitive to glucocorticoids are necessary for regeneration, resolution of the inflammatory response may also be required to allow the complete regenerative response and normal blastema patterning. Conversely, if resolution of inflammation is prevented by local treatment of amputated limbs with beryllium, a strong immunoadjuvant, regeneration is inhibited, and gene expression data suggest that this inhibition results from a failure of normal blastema patterning. Both positive and negative effects of immune- or inflammation-related activities occur during anuran limb regeneration and this underscores the importance of considering immune cells in studies of epimorphic regeneration. Anat Rec, 2012. ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 08/2012; 295(10):1552-61. · 1.34 Impact Factor