Piloting post-exposure prophylaxis in Kenya raises specific concerns for the management of childhood rape.
ABSTRACT Thika District, Kenya, is the site of an operational research study on the provision of comprehensive post-rape care, including the free provision of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). It is a typical rural Kenyan district in terms of resources and patient throughput. The high rate of children attending for post-rape services was unexpected and had significant programming implications. An age-disaggregated analysis of existing quantitative data from the first 8 months of service provision was conducted. Ninety-four case records were reviewed, of whom 48 (51%) were in the age range 1.5-17 years inclusive. All three cases of male rape were in children. Children were more likely to know their assailant than adults and were more likely to be HIV-negative at baseline. The majority (86%) of children presented in time for PEP, with adherence and completion rates similar to adults but lower rates of 6-week follow-up. The use of weight bands to determine drug dosages greatly simplified the appropriate and early administration of paediatric PEP. The high rates of childhood rape and demand for post-rape services were an enormous challenge for service providers and policy-makers.
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ABSTRACT: Sexual violence is a public health problem in Haiti, potentially augmenting HIV transmission. Reports from L'Hôpital de l'Université d'État d'Haiti (HUEH) suggest severe underutilization of antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis (ARV-PEP) among rape survivors. Cross-sectional design using mixed methods. Informational interviews were conducted with HUEH personnel to learn about post-rape service offerings. HUEH surveillance data were used to estimate the sexual assault reporting rate/100,000 and to examine the proportion of survivors receiving ARV-PEP within 72 hr, stratified by age (<18 years, ≥18 years). Informational interviews revealed that survivors were navigated through two hospital algorithms to receive post-rape care; however, <5% of victims sought mental health services. Surveillance data show that 2193 sexual assault survivors (adult and pediatric) reported a rape to HUEH personnel between 2004 through first quarter of 2010. Annual estimates suggest a twofold increase comparing cases in 2004 versus 2009. Between 2008 and 2009, uptake to ARV-PEP within 72 hr was lower for pediatric (38.4%; N = 131/341) compared with adult survivors (60.1%; N = 83/138) (χ(2) = 18.8, P < 0.001). The prioritization of funding and comprehensive interventions that align sexual violence, HIV, and mental health is crucial to support the timely uptake to ARV-PEP.American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 12/2012; · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies on HIV acquisition and transmission in women exposed to sexual trauma throughout their life cycle are lacking, but some findings suggest that rates of HIV acquisition through coercive sex are significantly higher than that seen in consensual sex. Sexual trauma can also occur as a result of female genital mutilation, which makes sex extremely painful and can cause increased abrasions, lacerations, and inflammation, which enhances the risk of HIV acquisition. This review presents an overview of the immune system in the human female reproductive tract (FRT) from adolescence, through puberty to pregnancy and menopause. What is clear is that the foundation of information on immune protection in the FRT throughout the life cycle of women is extremely limited and at some stages such as adolescence and menopause are grossly lacking. Against this backdrop, forced or coercive sexual intercourse as well as genital mutilation further complicates our understanding of the biological risk factors that can result in transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 10/2012; 69. · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sexual assault affects one out of every five women, and it is a substantial public health and human rights problem in developing countries including Ethiopia. There has not been a study which documented the extent of the problem in the study area; hence the objective of this study was to assess the pattern of sexual assault and related complications in cases which were treated at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from November 1, 2011 - October 31, 2012. A hospital based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with the aim of assessing sexual assault patterns and related complications on 99 sexual assault cases which were managed at the Gynecology Out-patient Department of the Hospital. Data on circumstances of sexual assault, survivor specific demographic characteristics and information on complications and interventions provided were collected by trained third year residents in obstetrics and gynecology using pretested questionnaire after respondent consent was taken. The collected data was cleaned, edited, fed into computer and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. The mean (±SD) of the survivors' age was 14 (±5) years; 57.5% of the survivors were children and 68.7% were from rural areas. Three percent of the clients visited the Gynecology Outpatient Department for sexual assault where rape accounted for 78.8%. The majority (76.8%) of the assailants was known to the survivors, 91% were assaulted by one assailant and 5.1% of the rape cases were gang rape. The mean time of presentation after sexual assault to the hospital was 15 days. Survivors had pregnancy test, HIV test and screening for sexually transmitted infections in 76.8%, 99%, 93% respectively of which 17.1%, 5.1%, 14.1% tested positive for pregnancy, HIV, and some STIs respectively. All HIV positive survivors were children under fifteen years of age. Forty percent of the survivors were provided with emergency contraception. In addition, 60.5%, 63%, and 91.9% of them were provided with post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, STIs prophylaxis and were given counseling respectively. It has been revealed that sexual assault is a major problem of women and children of less than fifteen years. There were gaps in providing and receiving packages of care and justice system to protect survivors indicating the needs for community intervention and providing quality of care by health care staff.Ethiopian journal of health sciences. 04/2014; 24(1):3-14.