Different tau epitopes define Abeta42-mediated tau insolubility.
ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular beta-amyloid (Abeta(42))-containing plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. The latter are composed of hyperphosphorylated filamentous aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Previously we demonstrated pathological interactions between these two histopathological hallmarks using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells overexpressing wild-type and mutant forms of human tau. Exposure to pre-aggregated forms of Abeta(42) caused both the formation of AD-like tau-containing filaments and a decreased solubility of tau, both of which were prevented by mutating the S422 phospho-epitope of tau. Here, we expressed additional tau mutants in SH-SY5Y cells to assess the role of phosphorylation and cleavage sites of tau in tau aggregation. We found that the Abeta(42)-mediated decrease in tau solubility depends on the interplay of distinct phospho-epitopes of tau and not only on phosphorylation of the S422 epitope.
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ABSTRACT: Transcriptomic methods are widely used as an initial approach to gain a mechanistic insight into physiological and pathological processes. Because differences in gene regulation to be assessed by RNA screening methods (e.g., SAGE, Affymetrix GeneChips) can be very subtle, these techniques require stable reference genes for accurate normalization. It is widely known that housekeeping genes, which are routinely used for normalization, can vary significantly depending on the tissue, and experimental test. In this study, we aimed at identifying stable reference genes for a fibrillar Abeta(42) peptide-treated, human tau-expressing SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line derived to model aspects of Alzheimer's disease in tissue culture. We selected genes exhibiting potential normalization characteristics from public databases to create a custom-made microarray allowing the identification of reference genes for low, intermediate, and abundant mRNAs. A subset of these candidates was subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and was analyzed with geNorm software. By doing so, we were able to identify GAPD, M-RIP, and POLR2F as stable and usable reference genes irrespective of differentiation status and Abeta(42) treatment.Analytical Biochemistry 01/2005; 335(1):30-41. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Of all forms of dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent. It is histopathologically characterized by beta-amyloid-containing plaques, tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles, reduced synaptic density and neuronal loss in selected brain areas. For the rare familial forms of Alzheimer's disease, pathogenic mutations have been identified in both the gene encoding the precursor of the Abeta peptide, APP, itself and in the presenilin genes which encode part of the APP-protease complex. For the more frequent sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease, the pathogenic trigger has not been unambiguously identified. Whether Abeta is again the main cause remains to be heavily discussed. In a related disorder termed frontotemporal dementia, which is characterized by tangles in the absence of beta-amyloid deposition, mutations have been identified in tau which also lead to neurodegeneration and dementia. For Alzheimer's disease the existence of familial forms lead to the proposition of the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which claims that beta-amyloid causes or enhances the tangle pathology. In this review, we describe tau transgenic mouse models in which aspects of the tau-associated pathology, including tangle formation, has been achieved. Moreover, tau transgenic mouse and tissue-culture models were used to test the amyloid cascade hypothesis. In addition, we discuss alternative hypotheses to explain the sporadic forms. The animal and tissue-culture models will provide insight into the underlying biochemical mechanisms of tau aggregation and nerve cell degeneration. These mechanisms may be partially shared between sporadic Alzheimer's disease, the familial forms and frontotemporal dementia. Eventually, Alzheimer's disease may be redefined based on biochemical events rather than phenotype.International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 12/2004; 22(7):453-65. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The paired helical filaments (PHFs) of Alzheimer's disease consist mainly of the microtubule-associated protein tau. PHF tau differs from normal human brain tau in that it has a higher Mr and a special state of phosphorylation. However, the protein kinase(s) involved, the phosphorylation sites on tau and the resulting conformational changes are only poorly understood. Here we show that a new monoclonal antibody, AT8, records the PHF-like state of tau in vitro, and we describe a kinase activity that turns normal tau into a PHF-like state. The epitope of AT8 is around residue 200, outside the region of internal repeats and requires the phosphorylation of serines 199 and/or 202. Both of these are followed by a proline, suggesting that the kinase activity belongs to the family of proline-directed kinases. The epitope of AT8 is nearly coincident with that of another phosphorylation-dependent antibody, TAU1 [Binder, L.I., Frankfurter, A. and Rebhun, L. (1985) J. Cell Biol., 101, 1371-1378], but the two are complementary since TAU1 requires a dephosphorylated epitope.The EMBO Journal 05/1992; 11(4):1593-7. · 9.82 Impact Factor