Screening for cutaneous melanoma.
ABSTRACT Current data do not support widespread population-based screening for melanoma. While the incidence of melanoma is high, the overall mortality is low, and thus any potential benefit of screening the general population is hard to demonstrate. No randomized controlled trial showing reduction in mortality has ever been completed and, given the expense and time necessary for such a trial, probably will never be completed. The idea of skin screening remains appealing for this common, visible malignancy which is eminently treatable when detected early. Efforts should be focused on populations at particularly high risk of developing melanoma and on those at high risk of death from melanoma once diagnosed. Persons in kindreds of familial melanoma, and persons who have atypical mole syndrome, those who have a prior diagnosis of melanoma, or those who have diagnosed atypical nevi are all reasonable candidates for routine screening, based on lower-level evidence in the absence of randomized clinical trials targeting these groups. Programs targeting persons of low socioeconomic status and targeting white men over the age of 50 could address groups known to beat especially high risk of melanoma mortality.
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ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the use of gold nanorods as molecularly targeted contrast agents for two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging of cancerous cells 150 µm deep inside a tissue phantom. We synthesized gold nanorods of 50 nm x 15 nm size with a longitudinal surface plasmon resonance of 760 nm. Gold nanorods were conjugated to antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and labeled to A431 human epithelial skin cancer cells in a collagen matrix tissue phantom. Using a 1.4 NA oil immersion objective lens, we found that excitation power needed for similar emission intensity in TPL imaging of labeled cells was up to 64 times less than that needed for two-photon autofluorescence (TPAF) imaging of unlabeled cells, which would correspond to a more than 4,000 times increase in emission intensity under equal excitation energy. However, the aberrations due to refractive index mismatch of the immersion oil and the sample limit imaging depth to 75 µm. Using a 0.95 NA water immersion objective lens, we observe robust two-photon emission signal from gold nanorods in the tissue phantoms from at depths of up to 150 µm. Furthermore, the increase in excitation energy required to maintain a constant emission signal intensity as imaging depth was increased was the same in both labeled and unlabeled phantom, suggesting that at the concentrations used, the addition of gold nanorods did not appreciably increase the bulk scattering coefficient of the sample. The remarkable TPL brightness of gold nanorods in comparison to TPAF signal makes them an attractive contrast agent for early detection of cutaneous melanoma.Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 01/2007; 6641. DOI:10.1117/12.735296 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cutaneous melanoma (CM) incidence and mortality have risen dramatically during the past 2 generations, particularly among Caucasian populations. Detailed, long-term trends of CM in relation to clinical and pathologic characteristics in a Central European population have not been published to date. The current study was based on 1980 patients with invasive CM diagnosed in Southern Germany during the years from 1976 to 2003 documented by the Central Malignant Melanoma Registry. The German standard population was used to calculate age-standardized rates, and the annual percent change was estimated by using age, anatomic site, histologic type, and tumor thickness. During the study period, the incidence of CM approximately was tripled for males and females, reaching 10.3 and 13.3 per 100,000 per year, respectively (P < .001). The largest increases occurred for melanoma localized on the upper limbs (annual change, 5.9% for males and 5.0% for females; P < .001) and superficially spreading melanoma (annual change, 7.8% for males and 5.9% for females; P < .001). Thin tumors (Breslow thickness <1 mm) were presented significantly more often during the study period (annual change, 9.8% for males and 6.1% for females; P < .001), predominantly in younger patients. Thick tumors and nodular melanomas were more frequent among older patients (age >70 years), particularly among males. The age-standardized mortality decreased from 1.5 to 0.8 per 100,000 males and from 2.6 to 0.8 per 100,000 females with a significant downward trend for the female population (P < .001). The current results indicated which diverging trends between incidence and mortality may be explained by improved public awareness regarding suspicious pigmented lesions and the earlier detection of these tumors. Continuation of the current preventive strategy and its expansion to include older age groups in the population are warranted.Cancer 10/2006; 107(6):1331-9. DOI:10.1002/cncr.22126 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 2-Deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is widely available as a powerful imaging modality, combining the ability to detect active metabolic processes and their morphologic features in a single exam. The role of FDG-PET is proven in a variety of cancers, including melanoma, but the estimates of sensitivity and specificity are based in the majority of the published studies on dedicated PET, not PET/CT. Therefore, we were prompted to review our experience with FDG-PET/CT in the management of melanoma. This is a retrospective study on 106 patients with melanoma (20-87 years old; average: 56.8 +/- 15.9), who had whole-body FDG-PET/CT at our institution from January 2003 to June 2005. Thirty-eight patients (35.9%) were women and 68 patients (64.1%) were men. Reinterpretation of the imaging studies for accuracy and data analysis from medical records were performed. All patients had the study for disease restaging. The primary tumor depth (Breslow's thickness) at initial diagnosis was available for 76 patients (71.7%) and ranged from 0.4 to 25 mm (average: 3.56 mm). The anatomic level of invasion in the skin (Clark's level) was determined for 70 patients (66%): 3, level II; 13, level III; 43, level IV; 11, level V. The administered dose of (18)F FDG ranged from 9.8 to 21.6 mCi (average: 15.4 +/- 1.8 mCi). FDG-PET/CT had a sensitivity of 89.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 78.5-95] and a specificity of 88% (95% CI: 76.2-94.4) for melanoma detection. This study confirms the good results of FDG-PET/CT for residual/recurrent melanoma detection, as well as for distant metastases localization. PET/CT should be an integral part in evaluation of patients with high-risk melanoma, prior to selection of the most appropriate therapy.Molecular Imaging & Biology 01/2007; 9(1):50-7. DOI:10.1007/s11307-006-0065-0 · 2.87 Impact Factor