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"In common dolphin the percentage of transfer declines inversely with the number of chlorines paralleled by increase of lipophilicity (Borrell and Aguilar, 2005). In a study on arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) a single physicochemical parameter, log K OW , largely explained the transplacental transfer for PCBs with congeners having a log K OW <6.5 preferentially transferred to the fetus (Desforges et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to characterize placental transfer of some congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to relate human in utero exposure to these pollutants to their physicochemical properties. We included into the study 1134 births during the period 2002-2003 from two highly PCB contaminated districts in eastern Slovakia. Concentrations of 15 PCB congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 52, 101, 123+149, 118, 114, 153, 105, 138+163, 167, 156+171, 157, 180, 170, and 189) in umbilical cord (C) and maternal serum (M) were determined. The C/M ratios were significantly related, either positively or inversely depending on parameter, to the logarithm of partition coefficient octanol-water (KOW), to fusion enthalpy at the melting point, molecular weight, water solubility, total surface area of the molecule, solvent accessible surface area, melting point, molar volume, and molecular electronegativity distance vector. We found an inverse association between log KOW and lipid adjusted log C/M (const= 1.078, b1 = -0.179, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.039). Parameters evaluated were interrelated except fusion enthalpy at the melting point and electron affinity vs. solubility. We discuss the possible role of cholesterol as a transplacental transporter of PCBs.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 09/2014; 218(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.08.003 · 3.83 Impact Factor
"When considering the body burden of a population it is essential to take into consideration important variables such as the sex, the age or the body condition, among others, since it has been described that some of them can play an important role on the impact of pollutants on the health of the animals. Thus, it has been described that the concentrations of organochlorine compounds increase with the age in the males and decrease in mature females, most likely due to the pollutant transfer to offspring (Borrell and Aguilar, 2005; Tanabe et al., 1982). In concordance with the literature , we have found higher levels of both, OCPs and PCBs in adult males than in adult females, and also higher values in older animals than in the younger ones (Table 2, and Figs. 3 and 4), although, due to the low number of individuals in each group (adult males, adult females, subadult males, subadult females, pregnant females), these differences did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concentrations of 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the blubber and liver of 27 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded along the Canary Islands coasts from 1997 to 2011. DDTs (mean of 60960 and 445 ng/g lw., respectively) and PCBs (mean of 47168 and 628 ng/g l.w., respectively) were the predominant compounds in both tissues. Among PCBs the highly chlorinated PCB 180, 153 and 138 were the predominant congeners. We found a p,p’-DDE/∑DDTs ratio of 0.87 in blubber and 0.88 in liver, which is indicative of DDT ageing. All the samples showed detectable values of any of the 16 PAH studied. Phenanthrene was the most frequently detected and at the highest concentration. According to our results, concentrations of OCPs, and especially PCBs, are still at toxicologically relevant levels in blubber of bottlenose dolphins of this geographical area.
Marine environmental research 09/2014; 100. DOI:10.1016/j.marenvres.2014.03.010 · 2.76 Impact Factor
"PCB 209, which has nine chlorines, was absent in the embryos. Other studies have noted decreases in maternal transfer rates as PCB congeners increase in chlorination (Borrell and Aguilar 2005; Desforges et al. 2012 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A putative mechanism for maternal transfer of organic contaminants and total mercury was empirically demon- strated in a near-term pregnant female common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus). Contaminants were measured in the liver and muscle tissue of the mother and her four embryos, as well as the embryos’ stomach contents. Concentrations of organic contaminants and mercury were found to be lower in the embryos’ livers than in the mother’s and were clearly measurable in the embryo stomach contents, which consisted of consumed ovulated eggs. Presence of high concentrations of organic contam- inants and mercury in embryos, prior to any exogenous exposure, provides clear evidence of maternal offloading in this species. In addition, the detection of these chemicals in the yolky stomach contents provides a mechanism by which oophagous elasmobranch females offload contaminants onto their young.
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 09/2013; 70:1667-1672. DOI:10.1139/cjfas-2013-0222 · 2.29 Impact Factor