Celiac disease: caught between a rock and a hard place.
ABSTRACT Celiac disease (CD) is an intestinal disorder caused by an intolerance to gluten, proteins in wheat. CD is an HLA-associated disease: virtually all patients express HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8. Recent work has shown that these disease-predisposing HLA-DQ molecules bind enzymatically modified gluten peptides and these HLA-DQ peptide complexes trigger inflammatory T-cell responses in the small intestine that lead to disease. In addition, gluten induces innate immune responses that contribute to the tissue damage that is characteristic for CD. Thus, CD patients are caught between a rock and a hard place: the disease is caused by a combination of adaptive and innate immune responses that both are triggered by gluten. These findings explain the disease-inducing properties of gluten and provide valuable clues for the development of alternative treatment modalities for patients. They also may be of relevance for our understanding of other multifactorial disorders including IBD and HLA-associated autoimmune diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Background and objectives:celiac disease is associated with the HLA class II alleles: DQA1*05-DQB1*02 and DQB1*0302. The genetic risk for celiac disease may depend on the presence or absence of such alleles, their combination or number of copies. This study aimed to establish the differences in HLA genotypes between celiac patients diagnosed during childhood and adulthood, and between patients and healthy controls, and to determine the risk of disease in each genotypic category. Methods: we classified 350 celiac patients at time of diagnosis and 218 controls into 14 categories according to their HLA genotype, based on the presence or absence of risk alleles. Results: we found statistically significant differences between the genotype frequencies of celiac patients diagnosed as being children and adults. DQA1*05 (x 1 copy), DQB1*02 (x 1 copy), DQB1*0302 (x 0 copies) was the most frequent genotype in individuals diagnosed in childhood, whereas DQA1*05 (x 1 copy), DQB1*02 (x 2 copies), DQB1*0302 (x 0 copies) was the most frequent in adults. The risk for disease in each genotypic category in celiac children and adults turned out to be different. The presence of DQB1*0302 did not increase risk in children, but did in adults. Conclusion: in our celiac population, we found a different genetic pattern according to age of diagnosis. That could suggest that the pathogenic mechanism of the disease is not exactly the same in both age groups, which could somehow determine clinical presentation of the disease, its epidemiology, coexisting diseases, and complications.Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva 09/2013; 105(8):469-476. · 1.65 Impact Factor
- Diet and Exercise in Cystic Fibrosis, First Edition edited by Ronald Ross Watson, 09/2014: chapter Cystic Fibrosis and Celiac Disease: pages 233-239; Academic Press., ISBN: 978-0-12-800051-9