Beck, C. F. Signaling pathways from the chloroplast to the nucleus. Planta 222, 743-756

Institute of Biology III, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestrasse 1, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.
Planta (Impact Factor: 3.26). 12/2005; 222(5):743-56. DOI: 10.1007/s00425-005-0021-2
Source: PubMed


Genetic and physiological studies have to-date revealed evidence for five signaling pathways by which the chloroplast exerts retrograde control over nuclear genes. One of these pathways is dependent on product(s) of plastid protein synthesis, for another the signal is singlet oxygen, a third employs chloroplast-generated hydrogen peroxide, a fourth is controlled by the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, and a fifth involves intermediates and possibly proteins of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. These five pathways may be part of a complex signaling network that links the functional and physiological state of the chloroplast to the nucleus. Mutants defective in various steps of photosynthesis reveal a surprising diversity in nuclear responses suggesting the existence of a complex signaling network.

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    • "Genetic activity in the nucleus and the plastids is expected to simultaneously increase because many plastid-generated signals control the expression of nuclear genes responsible for encoding plastid chloroplast and mitochondrial genes (Emanuel et al. 2004; Yurina et al. 2006). There is evidence for chloroplast-tonuclear and mitochondria-to-nuclear retrograde regulation signalling pathways responding to abiotic stress (Beck 2005). "
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    • "Some protein complexes, such as Rubisco, are encoded in separate genomes, nucleus and plastid. The control of gene expression in the separate genomes needs to be coordinated for plant cells to function correctly (Beck 2005). Prior study has revealed that RBCL is a ''control by epistasy of synthesis'' (CES) protein in Chlamydomonas (Wollman et al. 1999). "
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    • "Signaling pathways of these ROS seem to be distinctive, yet the cell is similarly damaged [22], [23]. Porphyrin may also be viewed as an attractive candidate for chloroplast molecules in the organelle-to-nucleus signaling pathways [62]. In a previous report, tetrapyrroles were found to be involved in the complex network controlling the stress-responsive genes and were greatly reduced in plants following drought treatment [47]. "
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