[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
Methadone may cause respiratory depression. We aimed to understand methadone-related effects on ventilation as well as each opioid-receptor (OR) role. We studied the respiratory effects of intraperitoneal methadone at 1.5, 5, and 15 mg/kg (corresponding to 80% of the lethal dose-50%) in rats using arterial blood gases and plethysmography. OR antagonists, including intravenous 10 mg/kg-naloxonazine at 5 minutes (mu-OR antagonist), subcutaneous 30 mg/kg-naloxonazine at 24 hours (micro1-OR antagonist), 3 mg/kg-naltrindole at 45 minutes (delta-OR antagonist) and 5 mg/kg-Nor-binaltorphimine at 6 hours (kappa-OR antagonist) were pre-administered. Plasma concentrations of methadone enantiomers were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry. Methadone dose-dependent inspiratory time (T(I)) increase tended to be linear. Respiratory depression was observed only at 15 mg/kg and characterized by an increase in expiratory time (T(E)) resulting in hypoxemia and respiratory acidosis. Intravenous naloxonazine completely reversed all methadone-related effects on ventilation, while subcutaneous naloxonazine reduced its effects on pH (P < 0.05), PaCO(2) (P < 0.01) and T(E) (P < 0.001) but only partially on T(I) (P < 0.001). Naltrindole reduced methadone-related effects on T(E) (P < 0.001). Nor-binaltorphimine increased methadone-related effects on pH and PaO(2) (P < 0.05) Respiratory effects as a function of plasma R-methadone concentrations showed a decrease in PaO(2) (EC(50): 1.14 microg/ml) at lower concentrations than those necessary for PaCO(2) increase (EC(50): 3.35 microg/ml). Similarly, increased T(I) (EC(50): 0.501 microg/ml) was obtained at lower concentrations than those for T(E) (EC(50): 4.83 microg/ml). Methadone-induced hypoxemia is caused by mu-ORs and modulated by kappa-ORs. Additionally, methadone-induced increase in T(E) is caused by mu1- and delta-opioid receptors while increase in T(I) is caused by mu-ORs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
Substance use disorders are highly prevalent in the United States and cause considerable damage to our society. They are underrecognized and undertreated despite a vast body of literature demonstrating the efficacy of treatment using both psychosocial and psychopharmacological modalities. For the last decade, research and progress into the biological basis of the addictive process has led to a rapidly growing number of pharmacological agents used to interrupt the addictive process at its various stages such as the initiation of substance abuse, the transition from abuse to dependence, and the prevention of drug reinstatement or relapse. Food and Drug Administration-approved medications exist for nicotine, alcohol, and opioid use disorders, and progress is being made to develop agents for stimulant use disorders. Regarding nicotine use disorders, nicotine replacement therapies,bupropion and varenicline, have Food and Drug Administration approval, and future options exist with endocannabinoid antagonists and immune therapy. Aversive agents, opiate antagonists, and glutamate based interventions are currently approved to treat alcohol use disorders with future promise with GABAergic, serotonergic, and endocannabinoid system agents. Opiate addiction is treated by approved agonist and antagonist mu-opioid medications with the future potential for agents that can modulate the stress systems and the iboga alkaloids. Although no pharmacotherapies are currently approved for cocaine addiction, promising lines of research include agents that affect dopaminergic, GABAergic, serotonergic,and glutamatergic systems as well as the promise for immune therapies.
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