Early correlation of microglial activation with enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression specifically within the entorhinal cortex of triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice

Department of Neurology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.
Journal of Neuroinflammation (Impact Factor: 4.9). 11/2005; 2:23. DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-2-23
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by a temporal and spatial progression of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and synaptic degeneration. Inflammatory processes have been implicated in initiating and/or propagating AD-associated pathology within the brain, as inflammatory cytokine expression and other markers of inflammation are pronounced in individuals with AD pathology. The current study examines whether inflammatory processes are evident early in the disease process in the 3xTg-AD mouse model and if regional differences in inflammatory profiles exist.
Coronal brain sections were used to identify Abeta in 2, 3, and 6-month 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic control mice. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed on microdissected entorhinal cortex and hippocampus tissue of 2, 3, and 6-month 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic mice. Microglial/macrophage cell numbers were quantified using unbiased stereology in 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic entorhinal cortex and hippocampus containing sections.
We observed human Abeta deposition at 3 months in 3xTg-AD mice which is enhanced by 6 months of age. Interestingly, we observed a 14.8-fold up-regulation of TNF-alpha and 10.8-fold up-regulation of MCP-1 in the entorhinal cortex of 3xTg-AD mice but no change was detected over time in the hippocampus or in either region of non-transgenic mice. Additionally, this increase correlated with a specific increase in F4/80-positive microglia and macrophages in 3xTg-AD entorhinal cortex.
Our data provide evidence for early induction of inflammatory processes in a model that develops amyloid and neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Additionally, our results link inflammatory processes within the entorhinal cortex, which represents one of the earliest AD-affected brain regions.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Microglia are macrophages within the central nervous system playing a central role in neurodegenerative disorders. Although the initial engagement of microglia seems to be neuroprotective, many lines of evidence indicate that its persistent activation contributes to dismantle neuronal activity and to induce neuronal loss. The molecular pathways that lead from amyloid interaction with membrane receptors to the microglial activation have been extensively investigated, although a definitive picture is not yet at hand. In this work, primary and immortalised microglial cells were treated with a synthetic form of Aß peptides, and relative abundance of acetylated and phosphorylated STAT3 were assayed. Results highlight, for the first time, three distinctive sequential events: i) an earlier event marked by the increase in the level of STAT3 acetylated species, followed by ii) a later increase in the level of STAT3 phosphorylated form, and finally iii) an involvement of phosphorylated STAT3 in the increase in expression of the 14-3-3 epsilon, a protein frequently associated with neurodegenerative diseases and known to be a marker of Aß-activated microglia. These data outline a complex, time-dependent modification of STAT3 signalling triggered by amyloid in the microglial compartments, that once confirmated by in vivo experiments will broad knowledge of the molecular basis of amyloid neurotoxicity.
    Neurochemistry International 01/2015; 81. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2015.01.007 · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common senile dementia in the world. Although important progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of AD, current therapeutic approaches provide only modest symptomatic relief. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of quercetin (25 mg/kg) administration via i.p. injection every 48 hours for 3 months on aged (21-24 months old) triple transgenic AD model (3xTg-AD) mice. Our data show that quercetin decreases extracellular β-amyloidosis, tauopathy, astrogliosis and microgliosis in the hippocampus and the amygdala. These results were supported by a significant reduction in the paired helical filament (PHF), β-amyloid (βA) 1-40 and βA 1-42 levels and a decrease in BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP (into CTFβ). Additionally, quercetin induced improved performance on learning and spatial memory tasks and greater risk assessment behavior based on the elevated plus maze test. Together, these findings suggest that quercetin reverses histological hallmarks of AD and protects cognitive and emotional function in aged 3xTg-AD mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuropharmacology 02/2015; 93. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.01.027 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease remains incurable, and the failures of current disease-modifying strategies for Alzheimer's disease could be attributed to a lack of in vivo models that recapitulate the underlying etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. The etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease is not based on mutations related to amyloid-β (Aβ) or tau production which are currently the basis of in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease. It has recently been suggested that mechanisms like chronic neuroinflammation may occur prior to amyloid-β and tau pathologies in late-onset Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study is to analyze the characteristics of rodent models of neuroinflammation in late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Our search criteria were based on characteristics of an idealistic disease model that should recapitulate causes, symptoms, and lesions in a chronological order similar to the actual disease. Therefore, a model based on the inflammation hypothesis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease should include the following features: (i) primary chronic neuroinflammation, (ii) manifestations of memory and cognitive impairment, and (iii) late development of tau and Aβ pathologies. The following models fit the pre-defined criteria: lipopolysaccharide- and PolyI:C-induced models of immune challenge; streptozotocin-, okadaic acid-, and colchicine neurotoxin-induced neuroinflammation models, as well as interleukin-1β, anti-nerve growth factor and p25 transgenic models. Among these models, streptozotocin, PolyI:C-induced, and p25 neuroinflammation models are compatible with the inflammation hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 04/2015; 12(1):74. DOI:10.1186/s12974-015-0291-y · 4.90 Impact Factor