Article

Early correlation of microglial activation with enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression specifically within the entorhinal cortex of triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice

Department of Neurology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.
Journal of Neuroinflammation (Impact Factor: 4.9). 11/2005; 2:23. DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-2-23
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by a temporal and spatial progression of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and synaptic degeneration. Inflammatory processes have been implicated in initiating and/or propagating AD-associated pathology within the brain, as inflammatory cytokine expression and other markers of inflammation are pronounced in individuals with AD pathology. The current study examines whether inflammatory processes are evident early in the disease process in the 3xTg-AD mouse model and if regional differences in inflammatory profiles exist.
Coronal brain sections were used to identify Abeta in 2, 3, and 6-month 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic control mice. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed on microdissected entorhinal cortex and hippocampus tissue of 2, 3, and 6-month 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic mice. Microglial/macrophage cell numbers were quantified using unbiased stereology in 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic entorhinal cortex and hippocampus containing sections.
We observed human Abeta deposition at 3 months in 3xTg-AD mice which is enhanced by 6 months of age. Interestingly, we observed a 14.8-fold up-regulation of TNF-alpha and 10.8-fold up-regulation of MCP-1 in the entorhinal cortex of 3xTg-AD mice but no change was detected over time in the hippocampus or in either region of non-transgenic mice. Additionally, this increase correlated with a specific increase in F4/80-positive microglia and macrophages in 3xTg-AD entorhinal cortex.
Our data provide evidence for early induction of inflammatory processes in a model that develops amyloid and neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Additionally, our results link inflammatory processes within the entorhinal cortex, which represents one of the earliest AD-affected brain regions.

0 Followers
 · 
196 Views
  • Source
    Experimental Neurology 08/2008; 212(1):1-4. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.03.005 · 4.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammation including local accumulations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a part of Alzheimer's disease pathology and may exacerbate age-related neurodegeneration. Most studies on TNF-alpha and TNF neuronal receptors are conducted by using embryonic neurons. Few studies consider age-related deficits that may occur in neurons. Age-related changes in susceptibility to TNF-alpha through TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and receptor 2 (TNFR2) expression could increase susceptibility to beta-amyloid (1-42, Abeta42). Evidence is conflicting about which receptor mediates survival and/or apoptosis. We determined how aging affects receptor expression in cultured adult rat cortical neurons. Old neurons were more susceptible to Abeta42 toxicity than middle-aged neurons, and the addition of TNF-alpha was neuroprotective in middle-aged neurons, but exacerbated the toxicity from Abeta42 in old neurons. These pathologic and protective responses in old and middle-aged neurons, respectively, correlated with higher starting TNFR1 and TNFR2 mRNA levels in old vs. middle-aged neurons. Middle-aged neurons treated with TNF-alpha plus Abeta42 did not show an increase in either TNFR1 or TNFR2 mRNA, but old neurons showed an up-regulation in TNFR2 mRNA and not TNFR1 mRNA. Despite these mRNA changes, surface immunoreactivity of both TNFR1 and TNFR2 increased with the dose of TNF-alpha in middle-aged neurons. However, middle-aged neurons treated with TNF-alpha plus Abeta42 showed an up-regulation in both TNFR1 and TNFR2 surface expression, whereas old neurons failed to up-regulate surface expression of either receptor. These findings support the hypothesis that age-related changes in TNF-alpha surface receptor expression contribute to the neuronal loss associated with inflammation in Alzheimer's disease.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 08/2008; 86(10):2303-13. DOI:10.1002/jnr.21663 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent breakthroughs in neuroscience have led to the awareness that we should revise our traditional mode of thinking and studying the CNS, i.e. by isolating the privileged network of "intelligent" synaptic contacts. We may instead need to contemplate all the variegate communications occurring between the different neural cell types, and centrally involving the astrocytes. Basically, it appears that a single astrocyte should be considered as a core that receives and integrates information from thousands of synapses, other glial cells and the blood vessels. In turn, it generates complex outputs that control the neural circuitry and coordinate it with the local microcirculation. Astrocytes thus emerge as the possible fulcrum of the functional homeostasis of the healthy CNS. Yet, evidence indicates that the bridging properties of the astrocytes can change in parallel with, or as a result of, the morphological, biochemical and functional alterations these cells undergo upon injury or disease. As a consequence, they have the potential to transform from supportive friends and interactive partners for neurons into noxious foes. In this review, we summarize the currently available knowledge on the contribution of astrocytes to the functioning of the CNS and what goes wrong in various pathological conditions, with a particular focus on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and ischemia. The observations described convincingly demonstrate that the development and progression of several neurological disorders involve the de-regulation of a finely tuned interplay between multiple cell populations. Thus, it seems that a better understanding of the mechanisms governing the integrated communication and detrimental responses of the astrocytes as well as their impact towards the homeostasis and performance of the CNS is fundamental to open novel therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Progress in Neurobiology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2015.04.003 · 10.30 Impact Factor