Hepatitis C virus infection in former commercial plasma/blood donors in rural Shanxi Province, China: the China Integrated Programs for Research on AIDS.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.78). 12/2005; 192(10):1694-700. DOI: 10.1086/497148
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Unsafe practices during illegal plasma donation in the late 1980s and early 1990s spread bloodborne infections in central China.
A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 538 adult residents of 12 villages in rural Shanxi Province, where there had been an illegal commercial plasma-collection center, was conducted in 2003. Structured questionnaires were administered, and blood samples were tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies.
HCV seroprevalence rates were 8.2% in all subjects, 27.7% in former commercial plasma/blood donors, and 2.6% in nondonors. Selling blood or plasma was the strongest independent predictor of HCV seropositivity (odds ratio [OR], 14.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 7.1-31.6]). A history of blood transfusion was also independently associated with HCV seropositivity (OR, 8.3 [95% CI, 2.1-32.0]). Plasma donors had a higher risk of being HCV seropositive than did whole-blood donors (OR, 7.6 [95% CI, 2.9-20.9]), and female donors had a lower risk than did male donors (OR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.12-0.80]). The strength of the association between selling blood and HCV seropositivity was weaker when plasma donors were excluded (OR, 8.0 vs. 14.4).
Unsafe practices during illegal plasma donation led to a high risk of HCV seropositivity for donors during the 1980s and 1990s. Failure to screen for HCV increased the risk of seropositivity for transfusion recipients during this same period. China has taken steps to halt illegal plasma collection and to improve blood-banking methods. However, there will be an ongoing challenge to care for patients with HCV infection, even as its incidence decreases.


Available from: Sten H Vermund, May 28, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Unhygienic blood collection in the early 1990s led to blood-borne infections in Central China. This study aimed to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection with hepatitis C and B viruses (HCV and HBV) and their risk factors in a rural area of Shanxi Province with a history of commercial blood donation. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004. All adult residents in the target area were invited to participate in the study. Face-to-face interviews were completed and blood specimens were tested for HIV, HCV, and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Prevalence rates of HIV, HCV, and HBsAg were 1.3% (40/3 062), 12.7% (389/3 062), and 3.5% (103/2982), respectively. Of the 40 HIV-positive specimens, 85% were HCV positive and 2.5% were HBsAg positive. The history of commercial blood donation was positively associated with HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infections, but was negatively associated with HBsAg seropositivity. Migration for employment in the last 5 years was positively related to HIV, HBsAg, and HIV/HCV co-infections. Univariate logistic analysis showed that illegal drug use, number of sex partners, extramarital sex behavior, commercial sex behavior, and condom use rate were not related to anti-HIV, anti-HCV, HBsAg seropositivity or their co-infections. The history of commercial blood donation was the main risk factor for HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infections in this former commercial blood donation area. HIV and HCV prevention and treatment interventions are important in this area.
    Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 06/2011; 24(3):207-13. DOI:10.3967/0895-3988.2011.03.001 · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis conducted by laboratories of 3 blood collection organizations in a rural area of China. From October to December 2003, 1068 samples were collected from blood donors presenting to the 3 collection centers. All samples were tested twice using 2 different test kits for HBsAg, HCV, and syphilis. An aliquot was sent to the China National Center for Clinical Laboratories to confirm the local test results. Sensitivities and specificities of the 3 local blood centers/banks were calculated using the results of the National Center for Clinical Laboratories as the gold standard. The sensitivity of the 3 blood collection center/banks ranged from 0% to 63.2% for HBsAg. For HCV, the sensitivity was 0%, and for syphilis, ranged from 0% to 85.7%. There were no HBsAg positives in one of the blood center/banks, and no syphilis positives in the other. Thus, sensitivity could not be measured for these tests in these 2 facilities. Combining all 3 tests, the overall sensitivity was 55.6%. The specificity was 100%. The sensitivity of the local laboratories was inadequate and could cause possible infection for an unacceptable number of blood recipients. Action needs to be taken to improve the quality of testing to ensure the safety of the rural blood supply.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 02/2010; 53 Suppl 1:S23-6. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181c7d494 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Blood transfusion is one of the most common transmission pathways of hepatitis C virus (HCV). This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable tabulation of available data on the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland, so as to help make prevention strategies and guide further research. A systematic review was constructed based on the computerized literature database. Infection rates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using the approximate normal distribution model. Odds ratios and 95% CI were calculated by fixed or random effects models. Data manipulation and statistical analyses were performed using STATA 10.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 was used for map construction. Two hundred and sixty-five studies met our inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of HCV infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland was 8.68% (95% CI: 8.01%-9.39%), and the epidemic was severer in North and Central China, especially in Henan and Hebei. While a significant lower rate was found in Yunnan. Notably, before 1998 the pooled prevalence of HCV infection was 12.87% (95%CI: 11.25%-14.56%) among blood donors, but decreased to 1.71% (95%CI: 1.43%-1.99%) after 1998. No significant difference was found in HCV infection rates between male and female blood donors, or among different blood type donors. The prevalence of HCV infection was found to increase with age. During 1994-1995, the prevalence rate reached the highest with a percentage of 15.78% (95%CI: 12.21%-19.75%), and showed a decreasing trend in the following years. A significant difference was found among groups with different blood donation types, Plasma donors had a relatively higher prevalence than whole blood donors of HCV infection (33.95% vs 7.9%). The prevalence of HCV infection has rapidly decreased since 1998 and kept a low level in recent years, but some provinces showed relatively higher prevalence than the general population. It is urgent to make efficient measures to prevent HCV secondary transmission and control chronic progress, and the key to reduce the HCV incidence among blood donors is to encourage true voluntary blood donors, strictly implement blood donation law, and avoid cross-infection.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 04/2011; 11(1):88. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-11-88 · 2.56 Impact Factor