Comparative pharmacognostic studies of three Phyllanthus species

Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226001, India.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3). 03/2006; 104(1-2):79-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.048
Source: PubMed


Different species of Phyllanthus are considered to be very effective hepatoprotective agents in the Indian indigenous systems of medicine and are considered bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, deobstruant and antiseptic. Still ayurvedic practitioners prescribed fresh juice of 'Bhuiamlki' for jaundice. Various species of Phyllanthus are being sold in India under the trade name 'Bhuiamlki'. During market surveillance of herbal drug, it was observed that almost all the commercial samples, either comprise of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn. or Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. or mixture of Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus fraternus Webster. and Phyllanthus maderaspatensis. Therefore, in this context the detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of all the three species has been carried out with the aim to establish the identification markers of this important hepatoprotective agent (effective in hepatitis B too). The study conclude that all the three species can be differentiated on the basis of macro and microscopic characters, physico-chemical values, HPTLC fingerprint profile, and detection of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin as marker components. Besides, an interesting conclusion can also be drawn that phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin said to protect hepatocytes against carbon tetrachloride and galactosamine induced toxicity, may not be exclusively responsible for hepatoprotective activity as these are present only in Phyllanthus amarus while Phyllanthus fraternus and Phyllanthus maderaspatensis also possess significant hepatoprotective activity.

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    • "In addition, corilagen, gallic acid, caffeolquinic acid, geraniin, and rutin have been identified in this plant (Khatoon et al., 2006; Kumar et al., 2015). This plant is a rich source of many bioactive compounds that have attracted much attention from researchers to study its health benefits and to cure or prevent certain chronic diseases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have suggested that plants are potential sources of bioactive compounds. Phyllanthus is a plant genus that has been used in traditional medicine due to its phytomedicinal metabolites content. The variation between two Phyllanthus species (P. niruri and P. urinaria) was studied using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) combined with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH radical scavenging activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the Phyllanthus species were also evaluated and correlated with their phytochemical constituents at different growth stages (8, 10 and 12 weeks) using partial least square regression (PLS). Principal component analysis (PCA) and PLS indicated separation between the two species based on the identified metabolites and the screened bioactivities. A comparison of the two species indicated that P. urinaria was separated from P. niruri due to its larger quantity of fatty and amino acids, choline, phyllanthin and sucrose. However, P. niruri contained higher quantities of hypophyllanthin and phenolic compounds. The loading column plot, which was used to compare the P. niruri at different growth stages, indicated that the eight-week-old plant contained a higher amount of fatty acids, amino acids (leucine and alanine), phyllanthin and choline. The dominant substances in the P. niruri at 10 weeks of growth by PC1 were identified as hypophyllanthin, malic acid, sucrose, and identified phenolics. The 12 week sample was differentiated by its higher sugars contents as well as malic acid and leucine. The harvested samples of both Phyllanthus species at ten weeks of age exhibited significant bioactivities with the highest content and number of metabolites.
    Industrial Crops and Products 12/2015; 77:602-613. DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.09.036 · 2.84 Impact Factor
    • "Despite the similar activity in various Phylllanthus extracts, the chemical constituents in each species of Phylllanthus are unlike. Khatoon et al. (2006) and Tripathi et al. (2006) reported large amounts of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin detected especially in P. amarus, whereas small quantities might be found in some species such as P. urinaria and Phyllanthus virgatus. Phyllanthin is a hepatoprotective compound that enables protection against ethanol-induced oxidative stress causing liver cell damage in rats through its antioxidant activity against superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) (Chirdchupunseree and Pramyothin, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Phyllanthus genus, a plant used in traditional Thai medicine, has according to several pharmacopeias hepatoprotective properties. Not only is the anatomical morphology of these species relatively similar but they also share the Thai common names Look-Tai-Bai (ลูกใต้ใบ) and Yah-Tai-Bai (หญ้าใต้ใบ), which might cause confusion for laypersons. This study attempted to develop a method for accurate identification of Phyllanthus species, especially P. amarus, and to detect contaminants in P. amarus products by using DNA barcoding coupled with High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis (bar-HRM). Two plastid loci (rbcL and trnL) were chosen for DNA barcoding to generate a suitable primer for distinguishing Phyllanthus species by HRM analysis. The five species of Phyllanthus were subjected to amplification for testing the specificity and discrimination power of the designed primers derived from rbcL and trnL regions. Sensitivity of the method (DNA barcoding conjugated with HRM) to detect adulterant in P. amarus samples was evaluated. The commercial P. amarus products obtained from a local market were authenticated. The primer pair derived from trnL DNA barcoding (PhylltrnL) had more specificity and power of discrimination for Phyllanthus species than that derived from rbcL DNA barcoding (PhyllrbcL). The result showed that Tm of P. amarus, P. urinaria, P. debillis, P. airy-shawii, and P. virgatus was 74.3±0.08, 73.04±0.07, 73.36±0.05, 72.21±0.06, 72.77±0.15 °C, respectively. This method proved to be a very sensitive tool that can be used for rapid detection of contamination as low as 1% of other Phyllanthus species in P. amarus admixtures. All commercial products of P. amarus obtained from a local market in Thailand were found to contain pure raw materials of P. amarus without any substitution or contamination. Our results indicated that the use of DNA barcoding coupled to HRM was an efficient molecular tool for correct species identification. This molecular tool provides a noteworthy benefit for quality control of medicinal plants industry plants for pharmacological prospects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 07/2015; 573(1). DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.07.046 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    • "The lignans phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, niranthin, nirtetralin, virgatusin, and heliobupthalmin lactone are common to P. amarus, P. maderaspatensis, P. urinaria, and P. virgatus [8]. However, according to Khatoon et al. [108], phyllanthin is absent in P. maderaspatensis. Also, Sharma et al. [106] have reported the absence of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin from P. maderaspatensis and P. urinaria. "
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius.
    The Scientific World Journal 02/2014; 2014:839172. DOI:10.1155/2014/839172 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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