Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is essential for neuronal cell cycle arrest and differentiation
ABSTRACT Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a serine/threonine kinase with significant homology to cell cycle-related Cdks but is not believed to be active in a typical cell cycle. In Cdk5-deficient embryos and Cdk5 chimeras, migration and survival of postmitotic neurons is compromised in a cell-autonomous manner. In the present study, we show that loss of Cdk5 leads to both failure of neuronal differentiation and loss of cell cycle control. Using specific cytoskeletal proteins as indices of neuronal differentiation, we find that Cdk5-deficient neurons are significantly arrested or delayed in their developmental program both in vivo and in vitro. For example, immunocytochemistry of embryonic day 16 (E16) cortex reveals that the expression of microtubule-associated protein 2c (Map-2c), a marker of mature neurons, is nearly absent in Cdk5(-/-) cells that have migrated to the cortical plate while these same cells continue to express nestin. Similarly, in vitro, Map-2-positive cells are rare in cultures from E16 Cdk5(-/-) embryos. Cell cycle control is also deficient in Cdk5(-/-) cells. In vivo, neurons engaged in cell cycle activities are found in the cortical plate, and, in vitro, class III beta-tubulin-positive cells continue to label with bromodeoxyuridine even after 5 d of incubation. Transfection of a wild-type Cdk5 construct reveals that cell cycle control can be regained in Cdk5(-/-) cells by overexpression of Cdk5. These data indicate that Cdk5 is necessary for both neuronal differentiation and cell cycle inhibition.
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ABSTRACT: Background and purposeAnti-retrovirals have improved and extended the life expectancy of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, as this population ages, the prevalence of cognitive alterations is increasing. Aberrant activation of kinases, such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and cyclin dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) play a role in the mechanisms of HIV neurotoxicity. Inhibitors of CDK5, such as roscovitine, have neuroprotective effects, however CNS penetration is low. Interestingly, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) display some CDK inhibitory activity and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.Experimental approachWe screened a small group of known TKIs for a candidate with additional CDK5 inhibitory activity and tested the efficacy of the candidate in in vitro and in vivo models of HIV-gp120 neurotoxicity.Key resultsAmong 12 different compounds, sunitinib inhibited CDK5 with an IC50 of 4.2 μM. In silico analysis revealed that, similarly to roscovitine, sunitinib fitted 6 of 10 features of the CDK5 pharmacophore. In a cell-based model, sunitinib reduced CDK5 phosphorylation (pCDK5), calpain-dependent p35/p25 conversion and protected neuronal cells from the toxic effects of gp120. In GFAP-gp120 transgenic mice, sunitinib reduced levels of pCDK5, p35/p25, phosphorylated Tau, as well as ameliorated the neurodegenerative pathology, and promoted in gp120 tg mice.Conclusions & implicationsThis study supports the notion that compounds such as sunitinib with dual kinase inhibitory activity might ameliorate the cognitive impairments associated with the chronic HIV involvement of the CNS. Moreover, repositioning existing small molecule compounds holds promise for the treatment of patients with neurodegenerative disorders.British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2014; DOI:10.1111/bph.12875 · 4.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in a number of cellular processes. In Dictyostelium, Cdk5 localizes to the nucleus and cytoplasm, interacts with puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase A (PsaA), and regulates endocytosis, secretion, growth, and multicellular development. Here we show that Cdk5 is a calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein (CaMBP) in Dictyostelium. Cdk5, PsaA, and CaM were all present in isolated nuclei and Cdk5 and PsaA co-immunoprecipitated with nuclear CaM. Although nuclear CaMBPs have previously been identified in Dictyostelium, the detection of CaM in purified nuclear fractions had not previously been shown. Putative CaM-binding domains (CaMBDs) were identified in Cdk5 and PsaA. Deletion of one of the two putative CaMBDs in Cdk5 ((132)LLINRKGELKLADFGLARAFGIP(154)) prevented CaM-binding indicating that this region encompasses a functional CaMBD. This deletion also increased the nuclear distribution of Cdk5 suggesting that CaM regulates the nucleocytoplasmic transport of Cdk5. A direct binding between CaM and PsaA could not be determined since deletion of the one putative CaMBD in PsaA prevented the nuclear localization of the deletion protein. Together, this study provides the first direct evidence for nuclear CaM in Dictyostelium and the first evidence in any system for Cdk5 being a CaMBP.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 01/2013; 1833(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2012.10.005 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In response to neurotoxic signals, postmitotic neurons make attempts to reenter the cell cycle, which results in their death. Although several cell cycle proteins have been implicated in cell cycle-related neuronal apoptosis (CRNA), the molecular mechanisms that underlie this important event are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that neurotoxic agents such as β-amyloid peptide cause aberrant activation of mitogen-activated kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, which promotes the entry of neurons into the cell cycle, resulting in their apoptosis. The MEK-ERK pathway regulates CRNA by elevating the levels of cyclin D1. The increase in cyclin D1 attenuates the activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) by its neuronal activator p35. The inhibition of p35-cdk5 activity results in enhanced MEK-ERK signaling, leading to CRNA. These studies highlight how neurotoxic signals reprogram and alter the neuronal signaling machinery to promote their entry into the cell cycle, which eventually leads to neuronal cell death.Molecular biology of the cell 07/2012; 23(18):3722-30. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E12-02-0125 · 5.98 Impact Factor