Patient- and bed partner-reported symptoms, smoking, and nasal resistance in sleep-disordered breathing
ABSTRACT Nocturnal and daytime symptoms are important determinants in clinical decision making in patients suspected of having sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We compared patients' and bed partners' reporting of symptoms associated with SDB in a clinical sample of snoring men. The bed partners' view on snoring disturbance was assessed. The relationship between sleep parameters, anthropometric data, and selected subjective symptoms was assessed. Additionally, we evaluated the relationship between smoking, nasal resistance, and habitual snoring.
A cross-sectional, prospective study.
University teaching hospital.
Thirty-seven consecutive snoring men referred to ENT Hospital because of a snoring problem or suspicion of sleep apnea, and scheduled for surgical treatment of nasal obstruction.
The patients completed a sleep questionnaire, a questionnaire on nasal history, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. The bed partners were asked to complete a separate sleep questionnaire of the patient's daytime and nocturnal symptoms. Both patients and bed partners evaluated the intensity of snoring on a visual analog scale. The patients underwent polysomnography and anterior rhinomanometry.
Agreement of patients' and bed partners' reports on symptoms related to SDB was good in this material. One half of the bed partners were disturbed by snoring every night or almost every night, and one third of the bed partners reported disharmony in the relationship from time to time or repeatedly due to snoring. The combination of current smoking and total nasal resistance in a supine position higher than the median value in this patient sample was associated with history of habitual snoring.
Male patients and their bed partners seem to give congruent reports of snoring and symptoms related to SDB in a clinical population with mild SDB. One half of the bed partners found their sleep constantly disturbed. The combination of current smoking and high nasal resistance was related with habitual snoring.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review explores the relation between obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and diabetes. It aims to address the following issues: 1. the epidemiological evidence of the association between OSAS and type 2 diabetes; 2. the independence of this association from the comorbidities shared by the two conditions; 3. the chronological and quantitative characteristics of this association (Which comes first? Is there severity interdependence? Is treatment of one condition able to modify the natural history of the other?); 4. the mechanisms that make interaction plausible; 5. the impact of the OSAS-diabetes relation on micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications. OSAS is common in type 2 diabetes. Despite the association being affected by the confounding action of type 2 diabetes comorbidities (also risk factors for OSAS), it does not seem to be fully attributable to them. There is also a relation between OSAS severity and glucose metabolism alteration. A link between OSAS and insulin resistance appears early, prior to impaired glucose tolerance and the onset of diabetes. Therefore, a debate is ongoing on the pathogenetic role of OSAS in type 2 diabetes development and any consequent relevance to diabetes treatment with no conclusive evidence to date. A multiplicity of hypothetical mechanisms may mediate this relation. Most experimental findings support sympathetic activation and changes in chemoreflex sensitivity based on the interaction between chemoreflex and baroreflex. Some studies suggest bidirectional relationship between OSAS and diabetes, additive or synergistic effects for diabetic complications and a reciprocal enhancement in their impact on hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Clarification of these items could benefit diabetes management and prevention of diabetic cardiovascular complications.Current diabetes reviews 03/2015;
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate whether snoring sounds can be reliably, i.e. reproducibly and comparably, assessed by the listener. This is an absolute prerequisite if an objective method is to provide a valid representation of subjective assessments of snoring sounds. Fifty-three subjects, both men and women, from different age categories assessed snoring sequences in terms of their annoyance level. This was done using a paired comparison model with ten sequences, once at original volume and once at adjusted peak level. In addition, assessments of 50 sequences were made using a visual analog scale (VAS). In the first paired comparison the assessments displayed very high consistency (K = 0.94) and high concordance (W = 0.83). The results showed very good agreement between the sexes (r s = 0.98), between different levels of snoring-related experience (r s = 0.99) and between different ages (r s = 0.98). At adjusted peak level there was also very high consistency (K = 0.91) although concordance was clearly lower (W = 0.50). The rankings in the two paired comparisons showed a high degree of correlation (r s = 0.81). The assessments on the VAS revealed good inter-rater reliability (α = 0.73) and a high degree of correlation with the result of the first paired comparison (r s = 0.93). Snoring sounds can be assessed in a reproducible and comparable manner in terms of their annoyance level. There are no gender-specific differences, and age-specific and experience-specific differences also appear to be negligible. While volume plays a dominant role, other characteristics of the sounds are also sufficient to permit an assessment.Archiv für Klinische und Experimentelle Ohren- Nasen- und Kehlkopfheilkunde 08/2014; 272(1). DOI:10.1007/s00405-014-3211-3 · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Few studies have investigated factors associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for sleep apnea from the patients' and their partners' perspective. This qualitative research study explored patients' and partners' experiences of CPAP and facilitators and barriers to CPAP use, and elicited suggestions for a first-time CPAP user program. Data from 27 participants were collected via four sleep apnea patient and four partner focus groups. Qualitative content analysis identified five themes: knowledge of sleep apnea, effects of sleep apnea, effects of CPAP, barriers and facilitators of CPAP, and ideas for a new user support program. Patients and partners emphasized the importance of partner involvement in the early CPAP treatment period. These data suggest consideration of a couple-oriented approach to improving CPAP adherence.Behavioral Sleep Medicine 09/2014; DOI:10.1080/15402002.2014.946597 · 1.56 Impact Factor