As part of a routine examination for insurance coverage, a 25-year-old previously healthy woman is found to have a positive test for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody. Heterosexual contact is her only risk factor for HIV acquisition. She is asymptomatic and has a normal physical examination. The results of hematologic and other routine laboratory tests are normal. Her CD4 cell count is 325 cells per cubic millimeter, and her plasma HIV-1 RNA level is 60,000 copies per milliliter (both confirmed on repeated testing). How should her case be managed?
"Since Metyonine is located in the active site of the enzyme, being replaced by valine which has different side chains which make the enzyme inactive. As a result, HIV resists Lamivudine strongly . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the fact that a definite treatment for AIDS disease has not been discovered so far, antiretroviral drugs
are relatively significant in controlling the disease. In this study, Lamivudine- which is an old and effective anti-AIDS
drug- was connected to PEGylated chitosan nanoparticle in order to produce a new and greater version of Lamivudine.
First, physicochemical studies such as HNMR, FTIR spectroscopy and CHN analysis were performed to ensure the proper
synthesis. Following that, Lamivudine-PEGylated Chitosan (LPC) drug was evaluated in terms of its inhibitory capability
in producing HIV virions and its cytotoxicity in different doses. HIV virions were created by transfection of psPAX2,
PmzNL4-3 and pMD2.G plasmids into HEK293T cell line. Also, assessment of the P24 amounts of cell supernatant was
performed using ELISA method. Among the different doses of LPC drug (0.1, 1, 10 and 100μM), it was found that 0.1μM
was the most effective and least toxic dose compared to Lamivudine in the same dose. Results of this study indicate that
LPC drug has the ability to inhibit HIV virus replication in a more significant way in comparison to the old drug. Besides,
the drug has a low cytotoxicity and is effective with a lower dose.
Current HIV Research 11/2013; · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Substantial changes in the field of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment have occurred in the last 2 years, prompting revision of the guidelines for antiretroviral management of adults with established HIV infection.
To update recommendations for physicians who provide HIV care regarding when to start antiretroviral therapy, what drugs to start with, when to change drug regimens, and what drug regimens to switch to after therapy fails.
Evidence was identified and reviewed by a 16-member noncompensated panel of physicians with expertise in HIV-related basic science and clinical research, antiretroviral therapy, and HIV patient care. The panel was designed to have broad US and international representation for areas with adequate access to antiretroviral management.
Evidence considered included published basic science, clinical research, and epidemiological data (identified by experts in the field or extracted through MEDLINE searches using terms relevant to antiretroviral therapy) and abstracts from HIV-oriented scientific conferences between July 2002 and May 2004.
Data were reviewed to identify any information that might change previous guidelines. Based on panel discussion, guidelines were drafted by a writing committee and discussed by the panel until consensus was reached.
Four antiretroviral drugs recently have been made available and have broadened the options for initial and subsequent regimens. New data allow more definitive recommendations for specific drugs or regimens to include or avoid, particularly with regard to initial therapy. Recommendations are rated according to 7 evidence categories, ranging from I (data from prospective randomized clinical trials) to VII (expert opinion of the panel).
Further insights into the roles of drug toxic effects, drug resistance, and pharmacological interactions have resulted in additional guidance for strategic approaches to antiretroviral management.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/2004; 292(2):251-65. DOI:10.1001/jama.292.2.251 · 35.29 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.