Positive psychological measure: constructing and evaluating the reliability and validity of a Chinese Humor Scale applicable to professional nursing.
ABSTRACT The nursing profession has generally accepted humor as beneficial to health care. As nursing has always emphasized holistic care and the importance of individual needs, the profession values the ability of humor to positively affect all aspects of a patient's well being. The purposes of this study were to develop a "Chinese Humor Scale (CHS)" for the nursing profession and then test its reliability and validity. The 405 individuals selected for participation in this study included nursing on-the-job students from a medical university and professional nurses practicing at four hospitals in north Taiwan. Researchers developed a list of 57 key humor measures which were filled out and returned by study participants. An evaluation of results using Cronbach's alpha coefficients demonstrated good consistency (alpha=.93) for the developed CHS. Intercorrelations amongst the four sub-scales were generally quite low, indicating each sub-scale measures dimensions relatively distinct from one another (r=.24 approximately .48, both p's<.001). The CHS was tested using item analysis. The scale was constructed in accordance with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (K.M.O.=.92). Thirty CHS items, categorized under the four indices of "humorous creativity", "tendency to laugh", "perceptivity to humor", and "humorous attitude", were found to explain 55.42% of total variances. The CHS was found to provide good validity using a content validity index (CVI) developed by five experts. The results of this study provide encouraging evidence for the construct validity and reliability of the proposed humor scale and support its application by nursing educators and clinicians to further test and assess concepts related to humor. Further research is needed to explore more fully the implications of humor in nursing.
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ABSTRACT: One objective of this study was to assess the effects of laughter on the psychological, immunological and physiological systems of the body. Another objective was to introduce the Laughing Qigong Program (LQP), as a method of standardization for simulated laughter interventions. A randomized, prospective, experimental study of the LQP was conducted in a group of adolescents (n=67) in Taiwan. During study-hall sessions, experimental subjects (n=34) attended the LQP for eight-weeks. Simultaneously, control subjects (n=33) read or did their homework. All subjects were tested before and after the intervention on the following: Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE), Chinese Humor Scale (CHS) and Face Scale (FS) as psychological markers; saliva cortisol (CS) as an immunological marker; blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as physiological markers of the body's response to stress. Mood states (FS) were measured before/after each LQP session. Mood states (p=.00) and humor (p=.004; p=.003) improved in the experimental group; no significant changes were found in the controls (p=69; p=60). The immunological marker of stress, cortisol levels, decreased significantly for those who participated in the LQP (p=.001), suggesting lower levels of stress after completion of the program. The LQP is a non-pharmacological and cost-effective means to help adolescents mitigate stresses in their everyday life.Complementary therapies in medicine 12/2013; 21(6):660-8. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A number of personal and familial stressors are supposedly stressful. However, their individual impacts on the person’s sense of belonging remain largely uncharted. The study thereby examines the impacts of the stressors in general and in relation to personal and familial background characteristics. Such examination adheres to the perspective of resource theory, which envisions that resources are salutary and relieving the stress of stressors by compensating for resource loss. A survey of 1,200 residents in Taiwan provided data for the examination. Results revealed that work-to-family conflict and family disbanding were two stressors weakening sense of belonging. Furthermore, the former stressor was more stressful to people of higher social class, whereas the latter stressor was more stressful to people with higher family income but lower education. The results imply certain ways to employ resources properly to tackle the stress of stressors.Social Indicators Research 01/2013; 113(1). · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7-16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity) and pain tolerance (submersion time) were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was). Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2007; 6(2):271-6. · 1.72 Impact Factor