An Unusual, His-dependent Family I Pyrophosphatase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis
ABSTRACT Soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPases) comprise two evolutionarily unrelated families (I and II). These two families have different specificities for metal cofactors, which is thought to be because of the fact that family II PPases have three active site histidines, whereas family I PPases have none. Here, we report the structural and functional characterization of a unique family I PPase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtPPase) that has two His residues (His21 and His86) in the active site. The 1.3-A three-dimensional structure of mtPPase shows that His86 directly interacts with bound sulfate, which mimics the product phosphate. Otherwise, mtPPase is structurally very similar to the well studied family I hexameric PPase from Escherichia coli, although mtPPase lacks the intersubunit metal binding site found in E. coli PPase. The cofactor specificity of mtPPase resembles that of E. coli PPase in that it has high activity in the presence of Mg2+, but it differs from the E. coli enzyme and family II PPases because it has much lower activity in the presence of Mn2+ or Zn2+. Replacements of His21 and His86 in mtPPase with the residues found in the corresponding positions of E. coli PPase had either no effect on the Mg2+- and Mn2+-supported reactions (H86K) or reduced Mg2+-supported activity (H21K). However, both replacements markedly increased the Zn2+-supported activity of mtPPase (up to 11-fold). In the double mutant, Zn2+ was a 2.5-fold better cofactor than Mg2+. These results show that the His residues in mtPPase are not essential for catalysis, although they determine cofactor specificity.
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- "When measured as a function of the concentration of the divalent metal of choice, Mn2+, Mtb DnaG exhibited a maximum activity near 2 mM of Mn2+ (Figure 6B). Mg2+ (1 mM) is used in the reaction to ensure robust activity of PPiase, which is not highly active in Mn2+ alone (34). Potassium glutamate (KGlu) was chosen for the assay, as it is the major electrolyte in vivo (41), and it significantly enhances protein–DNA interactions in vitro (42). "
ABSTRACT: Bacterial DNA primase DnaG synthesizes RNA primers required for chromosomal DNA replication. Biochemical assays measuring primase activity have been limited to monitoring formation of radioactively labelled primers because of the intrinsically low catalytic efficiency of DnaG. Furthermore, DnaG is prone to aggregation and proteolytic degradation. These factors have impeded discovery of DnaG inhibitors by high-throughput screening (HTS). In this study, we expressed and purified the previously uncharacterized primase DnaG from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb DnaG). By coupling the activity of Mtb DnaG to that of another essential enzyme, inorganic pyrophosphatase from M. tuberculosis (Mtb PPiase), we developed the first non-radioactive primase-pyrophosphatase assay. An extensive optimization of the assay enabled its efficient use in HTS (Z' = 0.7 in the 384-well format). HTS of 2560 small molecules to search for inhibitory compounds yielded several hits, including suramin, doxorubicin and ellagic acid. We demonstrate that these three compounds inhibit Mtb DnaG. Both suramin and doxorubicin are potent (low-µM) DNA- and nucleotide triphosphate-competitive priming inhibitors that interact with more than one site on Mtb DnaG. This novel assay should be applicable to other primases and inefficient DNA/RNA polymerases, facilitating their characterization and inhibitor discovery.Nucleic Acids Research 12/2012; 41(4). DOI:10.1093/nar/gks1292 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The unique family of membrane-bound proton-pumping inorganic pyrophosphatases, involving pyrophosphate as the alternative to ATP, was investigated by characterizing 166 members of the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot + UniProtKB/TrEMBL databases and available completed genomes, using sequence comparisons and a hidden Markov model based upon a conserved 57-residue region in the loop between transmembrane segments 5 and 6. The hidden Markov model was also used to search the approximately one million sequences recently reported from a large-scale sequencing project of organisms in the Sargasso Sea, resulting in additional 164 partial pyrophosphatase sequences. The strongly conserved 57-residue region was found to contain two nonapeptidyl sequences, mainly consisting of the four 'very early' proteinaceous amino acid residues Gly, Ala, Val and Asp, compatible with an ancient origin of the inorganic pyrophosphatases. The nonapeptide patterns have charged amino acid residues at positions 1, 5 and 9, are apparent binding sites for the substrate and parts of the active site, and were shown to be so specific for these enzymes that they can be used for functional assignments of unannotated genomes.FEBS Journal 12/2006; 273(22):5183-93. DOI:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05514.x · 4.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inorganic pyrophosphatase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt-PPase) is one of the possible targets for the rational design of anti-tuberculosis agents. In this paper, functional properties of this enzyme are characterized in the presence of the most effective activators--Mg2+ and Mn2+. Dissociation constants of Mt-PPase complexed with Mg2+ or Mn2+ are essentially similar to those of Escherichia coli PPase. Stability of a hexameric form of Mt-PPase has been characterized as a function of pH both for the metal-free enzyme and for Mg2+- or Mn2+-enzyme. Hexameric metal-free Mt-PPase has been shown to dissociate, forming monomers at pH below 4 or trimers at pH from 8 to 10. Mg2+ or Mn2+ shift the hexamer-trimer equilibrium found for the apo-Mt-PPase at pH 8-10 toward the hexameric form by stabilizing intertrimeric contacts. The pK(a) values have been determined for groups that control the observed hexamer-monomer (pK(a) 5.4), hexamer-trimer (pK(a) 7.5), and trimer-monomer (pK(a) 9.8) transitions. Our results demonstrate that due to the non-conservative amino acid residues His21 and His86 in the active site of Mt-PPase, substrate specificity of this enzyme, in contrast to other typical PPases, does not depend on the nature of the metal cofactor.Biochemistry (Moscow) 09/2008; 73(8):897-905. DOI:10.1134/S0006297908080075 · 1.30 Impact Factor