An unusual, His-dependent family I pyrophosphatase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT Soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPases) comprise two evolutionarily unrelated families (I and II). These two families have different specificities for metal cofactors, which is thought to be because of the fact that family II PPases have three active site histidines, whereas family I PPases have none. Here, we report the structural and functional characterization of a unique family I PPase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtPPase) that has two His residues (His21 and His86) in the active site. The 1.3-A three-dimensional structure of mtPPase shows that His86 directly interacts with bound sulfate, which mimics the product phosphate. Otherwise, mtPPase is structurally very similar to the well studied family I hexameric PPase from Escherichia coli, although mtPPase lacks the intersubunit metal binding site found in E. coli PPase. The cofactor specificity of mtPPase resembles that of E. coli PPase in that it has high activity in the presence of Mg2+, but it differs from the E. coli enzyme and family II PPases because it has much lower activity in the presence of Mn2+ or Zn2+. Replacements of His21 and His86 in mtPPase with the residues found in the corresponding positions of E. coli PPase had either no effect on the Mg2+- and Mn2+-supported reactions (H86K) or reduced Mg2+-supported activity (H21K). However, both replacements markedly increased the Zn2+-supported activity of mtPPase (up to 11-fold). In the double mutant, Zn2+ was a 2.5-fold better cofactor than Mg2+. These results show that the His residues in mtPPase are not essential for catalysis, although they determine cofactor specificity.
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial DNA primase DnaG synthesizes RNA primers required for chromosomal DNA replication. Biochemical assays measuring primase activity have been limited to monitoring formation of radioactively labelled primers because of the intrinsically low catalytic efficiency of DnaG. Furthermore, DnaG is prone to aggregation and proteolytic degradation. These factors have impeded discovery of DnaG inhibitors by high-throughput screening (HTS). In this study, we expressed and purified the previously uncharacterized primase DnaG from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb DnaG). By coupling the activity of Mtb DnaG to that of another essential enzyme, inorganic pyrophosphatase from M. tuberculosis (Mtb PPiase), we developed the first non-radioactive primase-pyrophosphatase assay. An extensive optimization of the assay enabled its efficient use in HTS (Z' = 0.7 in the 384-well format). HTS of 2560 small molecules to search for inhibitory compounds yielded several hits, including suramin, doxorubicin and ellagic acid. We demonstrate that these three compounds inhibit Mtb DnaG. Both suramin and doxorubicin are potent (low-µM) DNA- and nucleotide triphosphate-competitive priming inhibitors that interact with more than one site on Mtb DnaG. This novel assay should be applicable to other primases and inefficient DNA/RNA polymerases, facilitating their characterization and inhibitor discovery.Nucleic Acids Research 12/2012; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inorganic pyrophosphatases are potential targets for the development of novel antibacterial agents. A pyrophosphatase-coupled high-throughput screening assay intended to detect o-succinyl benzoic acid coenzyme A (OSB CoA) synthetase inhibitors led to the unexpected discovery of a new series of novel inorganic pyrophosphatase inhibitors. Lead optimization studies resulted in a series of 3-(3-aryl-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-aryl-1,2,4-triazine derivatives that were prepared by an efficient synthetic pathway. One of the tetracyclic triazine analogues 22h displayed promising antibiotic activity against a wide variety of drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, as well as activity versus Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Bacillus anthracis, at a concentration that was not cytotoxic to mammalian cells.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 11/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma cruzi infection leads to development of a chronic disease but the mechanisms that the parasite utilizes to establish a persistent infection despite activation of a potent immune response by the host are currently unknown. Unusual characteristics of T. cruzi are that it possesses cellular levels of pyrophosphate (PPi ) at least ten times higher than those of ATP and molar levels of inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) within acidocalcisomes. We characterized an inorganic soluble EF-hand containing pyrophosphatase from T. cruzi (TcVSP) that, depending on the pH and cofactors, can hydrolyze either pyrophosphate (PPi ) or polyphosphate (polyP). The enzyme is localized to both acidocalcisomes and cytosol. Overexpression of TcVSP (TcVSP-OE) resulted in a significant decrease in cytosolic PPi , and short and long chain polyP levels. Additionally, the TcVSP-OE parasites showed a significant growth defect in fibroblasts, less responsiveness to hyperosmotic stress, and reduced persistence in tissues of mice, suggesting that PPi and polyP are essential for the parasite to resist the stressful conditions in the host and to maintain a persistent infection.Molecular Microbiology 09/2013; · 4.96 Impact Factor