Utility of ultrasound-guided central venous cannulation in pediatric surgical patients: a clinical series
ABSTRACT Central venous cannulation can be particularly difficult in pediatric patients. Central line placement is associated with many well-known complications. While ultrasound-guided techniques are well established, the majority of central venous catheters are placed using landmark guidance. This retrospective study compares the safety and efficacy of ultrasound guidance vs landmark guidance in central venous cannulation of pediatric cardiac surgery patients.
The medical records of 149 pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery over 3-year period were reviewed. Patients were classified into two cohorts based on whether central venous cannulation of the internal jugular vein was performed by ultrasound or landmark guidance. Overall success and traumatic complication rates were compared between the two groups. Additionally, comparisons between the groups were made to determine if patient size or age affected the success rate of either approach in different manner.
Patients in the ultrasound-guided (n = 47) and the landmark-guided (n = 102) groups were similar with respect to age, weight, and surgical procedure for which central venous access was indicated. The overall success rate for cannulation of the internal jugular vein was 91.5% in the ultrasound-guided group and 72.5% in the landmark-guided group (P = 0.010). But in the subgroup of children under 1 year of age, success rate was 77.8% in ultrasound group and 60.9% in landmark group (P = 0.44); in children under 10 kg in weight, success rate was 80% in ultrasound group and 56.7% in landmark group (P = 0.19). There were no significant differences in the rate of traumatic complications between the two methods.
The overall success of internal jugular vein cannulation for pediatric cardiac surgery is significantly improved with the use of ultrasound guidance, without a significant difference in traumatic complications. However, mostly children above 1 year of age or 10 kg of weight experience advantages of ultrasound technique.
SourceAvailable from: Paolo Cotogni[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks associated with each type of CVAD (CICCs or PICCs). Second, an inappropriate CVAD choice and, particularly, an inadequate insertion technique are relevant-and often not recognized-potential risk factors for complications in critically ill patients. We strongly believe that all healthcare professionals involved in the choice, insertion or management of CVADs in critically ill patients should know all potential risk factors of complications. This knowledge may minimize complications and guarantee longevity to the CVAD optimizing the risk/benefit ratio of CVAD insertion and use. Proper management of CVADs in critical care saves lines and lives. Much evidence from the medical literature and from the clinical practice supports our belief that, compared to CICCs, the so-called power-injectable peripherally inserted central catheters are a good alternative choice in critical care.11/2014; 3(4):80-94. DOI:10.5492/wjccm.v3.i4.80
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To discuss pediatric intensivist-driven ultrasound and the exigent need for research and practice definitions pertaining to its implementation within pediatric critical care, specifically addressing issues in ultrasound-guided vascular access and intensivist-driven echocardiography. Conclusions: Intensivist-driven ultrasound improves procedure safety and reduces time to diagnosis in clinical ultrasound applications, as demonstrated primarily in adult patients. Translating these applications to the PICU requires thoughtful integration of the technology into practice and would best be informed by dedicated ultrasound research in critically ill children.Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 06/2014; 15(7). DOI:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000168 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: The use of ultrasound (US) has been shown to improve success rates and reduce complications of central venous catheter (CVC) placement in adult emergency department (ED) patients. The authors sought to determine if US assistance for CVC placement is associated with an increased success rate in pediatric ED patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of CVC placement in a pediatric ED from January 2003 to October 2011. Data were extracted from a procedure log created to record details entered by physicians at the time of CVC placement, including indication, location, complications, and information regarding use of US. All femoral vein and internal jugular vein CVC placement attempts performed by, assisted with, or directly supervised by pediatric emergency physicians (EPs) were included. Characteristics of procedures performed with and without US assistance were compared, controlling for patient and physician factors. The primary outcome was the success rate of CVC placement. Results: There were 168 patients undergoing CVC placement attempts. The proportion of successful placement attempts was significantly higher when using US assistance (96 of 98) compared to those without (55 of 70; 98% vs. 79%, odds ratio [OR] = 13.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9 to 59.4). When controlling for patient-and physician-specific factors, success rates remained significantly higher. Conclusions: Ultrasound assistance was associated with greater likelihood of success in CVC placement in a pediatric ED. (C) 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency MedicineAcademic Emergency Medicine 09/2014; 21(9). DOI:10.1111/acem.12460 · 2.20 Impact Factor