Drug release and permeation studies of nanosuspensions based on solidified reverse micellar solutions (SRMS).
ABSTRACT Solidified reverse micellar solutions (SRMS), i.e. mixtures of lecithin and triglycerides, offer high solubilisation capacities for different types of drugs in contrast to simple triglyceride systems [Friedrich, I., Müller-Goymann, C.C., 2003. Characterisation of SRMS and production development of SRMS-based nanosuspensions. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 56, 111-119]. Nanosuspensions based on SRMS were prepared by homogenisation close to the melting point of the SRMS matrix. In a first step the SRMS matrices of 1:1 (w/w) ratios of lecithin and triglycerides were loaded with 17beta-estradiol-hemihydrate (EST), hydrocortisone (HC) or pilocarpine base (PB), respectively, and subsequently ground in liquid nitrogen to minimise drug diffusion later on. The powder was then dispersed in a polysorbate 80 solution using high pressure homogenisation. The drug loading capacities of the nanosuspensions were very high in the case of poorly water-soluble EST (99% of total 0.1%, w/w, EST) and HC (97% of total 0.5%, w/w, HC) but not sufficient with the more hydrophilic PB (37-40% of total 1.0%, w/w, PB). These findings suggest SRMS-based nanosuspensions to be promising aqueous drug carrier systems for poorly soluble drugs like EST and HC. Furthermore, in vitro drug permeation from the different drug-loaded nanosuspensions was performed across human cornea construct (HCC) as an organotypical cell culture model. PB permeation did not differ from the nanosuspension and an aqueous solution whereas the permeation coefficients of HC-loaded nanosuspensions were reduced in comparison to aqueous and oily solutions of HC. However, the permeated amount was higher from the nanosuspensions due to a much lower HC concentration in the solution than that in the nanosuspension (solution 0.02%, w/w, versus nanosuspension 0.5%, w/w). The high drug load of the nanoparticles provides prolonged HC release. Permeated amounts of EST were reduced in comparison to HC and only detectable with an ELISA technique. The EST release from nanosuspensions and different EST-loaded systems revealed a prolonged EST release from the nanoparticulate systems in contrast to a faster release of an oily solution of an equal EST concentration. With regard to an aqueous EST suspension of similar concentration which represents a depot system the release rate from the nanosuspensions revealed the same order of magnitude which points again to a prolonged release potential of the nanosuspensions.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract The low encapsulation efficiency of conventional solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) especially for hydrophilic drugs has remained a challenge to drug formulation experts. This work seeks to address the issue of inefficient delivery of metformin hydrochloride (MTH), a potent hydrophilic oral antihyperglycemic agent, using novel SLMs based on solidified reverse micellar solutions (SRMS) prepared by melt-emulsification using a lipid derived from Capra hircus and Phospholipon® 90H. Characterization based on size, morphology, zeta potential, polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency (EE%), loading capacity (LC) and time-resolved stability were carried out on the SLMs. The in vitro release of MTH from the SLMs was performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) while the in vivo antidiabetic properties were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Stable, spherical and smooth SLMs were obtained. Loading of MTH into the SLMs had no effect on the surface charge of the particles. The SLMs with 1.0%w/w PEG 4000 resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) higher EE% while those with 2.0%w/w gave the least. The LC values ranged from 20.3 to 29.1 and 14.6 to 24.1 for SLMs containing 500 mg and 250 mg of MTH, respectively. The in vitro release studies revealed significant release of MTH from the SLMs whereas the in vivo antidiabetic studies indicated that novel SLMs containing 500 mg of MTH gave significantly (p < 0.05) higher glucose reduction than glucophage®. This research has shown that SLMs based on SRMS offer a new and better approach of delivering MTH, thus encouraging further development of this formulation.Drug Delivery 05/2013; · 2.02 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of our work was to study the micromeritic properties of lyophilized diclofenac potassium-loaded lipospheres and to evaluate in vivo, the analgesic properties of diclofenac potassium in the lipospheres in addition to other in vitro properties. Solidified reverse micellar solutions were prepared by fusion using 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2% w/w of Phospholipon(®) 90H and Softisan(®) 154. Diclofenac potassium (1, 3, and 5% w/w) was incorporated into the solidified reverse micellar solutions. Solidified reverse micellar solutions-based lipospheres were formulated by melt homogenization techniques using Ultra-Turrax homogenizer, and thereafter lyophilized to obtain water-free lipospheres. The lipospheres were characterized in terms of particle size and morphology, stability, thermal analysis, drug content, encapsulation efficiency, and loading capacity. The flow properties of the lipospheres were studied using both direct and indirect methods of assessing flow. The analgesic properties of the lipospheres were studied using the hot plate method. Results obtained showed that the yield of diclofenac potassium-loaded lipospheres was high and the particle size ranged from 0.61±0.07 to 2.55±0.04 μm. The lipospheres had high encapsulation efficiency of 95%, which was affected by the amount of drug loaded, while the loading capacity increased with the increase in drug loading. Diclofenac potassium-loaded lipospheres exhibited poor flow. The formulations exhibited good analgesic effect compared with the reference and had 84 to 86% drug release at 13 h. The lipospheres based on solidified reverse micellar solutions could be used for oral delivery of diclofenac potassium.Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 01/2013; 75(3):302-309. · 0.34 Impact Factor
Article: Transdermal microgels of gentamicin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phospholipid-modified solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) of Phospholipon® 90G and 90H encapsulating the hydrophilic drug, gentamicin were produced and loaded into three polymeric hydrogels of Poloxamer 407 and polyacrylic acids (Carbopols® 971P and 974P). The SLMs were characterized by morphology and particle size, drug encapsulation efficiency, thermal properties, pH and storage stability whereas the microgels were evaluated for viscosity, spreadability, pH, drug content and in vitro antimicrobial drug release against five micro-organisms (Klebsiella Spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Our results generally showed Poloxamer 407 microgels of P90H and P90G as having the most desirable properties in terms of fast antibacterial activity on all tested micro-organisms, in vitro diffusion-dependent permeation through rat abdominal skin, spreadability, pH, and viscosity, superior to polyacrylic acids microgels.European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V (Impact factor 3.83). 05/2013; 84(2):345–354.