Expressions of nuclear factor kappaB, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and vascular endothelial growth factor in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands: correlations with the angiogenesis and clinical outcome.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the expressions of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB p65), inducible nitric oxide synthase enzyme (iNOS), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in relation to angiogenesis (microvessel density, MVD) and clinical outcomes in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of salivary glands.
Immunohistochemical staining was used to quantify the protein expression levels of NF-kappaB p65, iNOS, and VEGF in 80 surgically resected ACCs and 20 normal salivary tissues. In all cases of ACCs, MVD was evaluated by counting CD34-reactive endothelial cells or endothelial cell clusters.
The nuclear localization of NF-kappaB p65 was only detected in ACC cells. Both iNOS and VEGF staining activities in ACCs were more significant than those in normal gland tissues (P < 0.01). MVD had significant correlations with NF-kappaB p65, iNOS, and VEGF expressions (P < 0.01). In three histologic types of ACCs, the NF-kappaB, iNOS, VEGF expressions, and MVD were significantly higher in solid type than in cribriform and tubular types (P < 0.01). The NF-kappaB, iNOS, VEGF expressions, and MVD were significantly correlated with clinical stage, tumor size, vascular invasion, recurrence, and metastasis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed NF-kappaB, iNOS and VEGF expression, MVD, solid histotype, and perineural invasion had an independent prognostic effect on overall survival.
The expressions of NF-kappaB p65, iNOS, and VEGF were related with MVD. Clinical outcomes raised the possibility that the overexpression of these cytokines might contribute to tumor angiogenesis and have prognostic value in ACCs.
Article: Salivary gland cancer stem cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies.Oral Oncology 06/2013; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The constitutive activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway is involved in oncogenesis, invasive growth, metastasis and induced resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Selective inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway, either by a mutant inhibitor or pharmacological agents, improves the therapeutic efficiency of irradiation. In the present study, the changes in NF-κB expression and the rate of apoptosis were investigated following irradiation of cells of an adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line (ACC-M) in which NF-κB expression had been inhibited by transient transfection with a mutant IκBα plasmid. ACC-M cells were transiently transfected with the mutant IκBα plasmid using Lipofectamine and the expression of this mutant IκBα gene was verified. The presence of the mutant IκBα gene alone did not result in a reduction in cell proliferation. Furthermore, a significant inhibition of translocation and synthesis of NF-κB protein in the transfected cells was observed after irradiation. NF-κB protein was activated by different doses of irradiation in a dose- and time-dependent manner with concordant changes in the radiosensitivity of ACC-M cells. We conclude that the mutant IκBα gene selectively inhibited the NF-κB pathway, which may be a promising method to improve the radiosensitivity of adenoid cystic carcinomas.Oncology letters 04/2013; 5(4):1375-1381. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered as a prime mediator of angiogenesis and has been implicated in carcinogenesis and metastasis. Various studies examined the relationship between VEGF protein overexpression with the clinical outcome in patients with oral cancer, but yielded conflicting results. Electronic databases updated to March 2013 were searched to find relevant studies. A meta-analysis was conducted with eligible studies which quantitatively evaluated the relationship between VEGF overexpression and survival of patients with oral cancer. Survival data were aggregated and quantitatively analyzed. We performed a meta-analysis of 17 studies (n = 1,207 patients) that evaluated the correlation between VEGF overexpression detected by immunohistochemistry and survival in patients with oral cancer. Combined hazard ratios suggested that VEGF overexpression had an unfavorable impact on overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.89; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.55) and disease-free survival (HR = 2.08; 95 % CI, 1.14-3.02) in patients with oral cancer: 1.77 (1.09-1.44) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients and 4.28 (1.35-7.21) in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the salivary glands. No significant heterogeneity was observed among all studies. VEGF overexpression indicates a poor prognosis for patients with oral SCC, ACC, and MEC of the salivary glands.Tumor Biology 06/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor