The accuracy of ultrasound, stereotactic, and clinical core biopsies in the diagnosis of breast cancer, with an analysis of false-negative cases.
ABSTRACT Preoperative core biopsy in breast cancer is becoming the standard of care. The aim of this study was to analyze the various methods of core biopsy with respect to diagnostic accuracy and to examine the management and outcome of those patients with false-negative biopsies.
All patients undergoing core biopsy for breast abnormalities over a 5-year period (1999-2003) were reviewed. The accuracy rates for each method of core biopsy, the histologic agreement between the core pathology and subsequent excision pathology, and the length of follow-up for cases of benign disease were studied. Patients whose biopsies were benign but who were subsequently diagnosed with cancer underwent detailed review.
There were 2427 core biopsies performed over the 5-year period, resulting in a final diagnosis of cancer in 1384 patients, benign disease in 954 patients, and atypical disease in 89 patients. Biopsy type consisted of 1279 ultrasound-guided cores, 739 clinically guided cores, and 409 stereotactic-guided cores. The overall false-negative rate was 6.1%, with specific rates for ultrasound-, clinical-, and stereotactic-guided cores of 1.7%, 13%, and 8.9%, respectively. False-negative biopsies occurred in 85 patients, and in 8 of these patients the diagnosis was delayed by greater than 2 months. In all other false-negative cases, "triple assessment" review allowed prompt recognition of discordant biopsy results and further evaluation.
Ultrasound guidance should be used to perform core biopsies in evaluating all breast abnormalities visible on ultrasound. Adherence to principles of triple assessment following biopsy allows for early recognition of the majority of false-negative cases.
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ABSTRACT: Background In recent years, pathological diagnoses have been increasingly required, especially in small breast lesions, as malpractice lawsuits concerning erroneous cytological diagnoses have been commonly reported. Here, we retrospectively evaluated the significance of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy (VAB) for small breast lesions under ultrasonography guidance. Patients and Methods A total of 1383 cases for which ultrasonography-guided VAB was performed between June 1996 and December 2012 were reviewed. Of these, 455 small breast lesions (239 non-palpable and 216 non-mass lesions) were included in the study. Results Ultrasonography-guided FNAC was performed before VAB in 248 cases (54.5%). In 133 cases (53.6%), the results of FNAC were inconclusive. Pathological examinations by VAB revealed malignant and benign lesions in 199 and 256 cases, respectively. Of the 256 benign cases, we performed excisional biopsy in 17 cases (6.6%) and repeated VAB in 8 cases (3.1%). Excisional biopsy revealed malignant lesions in 2 cases. The reason for excisional biopsy was overdiagnosis by FNAC in 6 cases (35%). In all cases of repeated VAB, the pathological diagnosis was benign. The reason for repeated VAB was excision of the lesions in 5 cases (62.5%). The false positive and false negative rates of FNAC were 8.6% and 7.9%, respectively, whereas those of VAB were 0% and 0.78%, respectively. Conclusion Cytology findings for small breast lesions should be considered only when both imaging and cytology indicate benign lesions. Therefore, pathological examination without cytological examination should be the initial approach.Clinical Breast Cancer 07/2014; 15(1). DOI:10.1016/j.clbc.2014.07.001 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tissue sampling is a problematic issue for inflammatory breast carcinoma, and immediate evaluation following core needle biopsy is needed to evaluate specimen adequacy. We sought to determine if confocal fluorescence microscopy provides sufficient resolution to evaluate specimen adequacy by comparing invasive tumor cellularity estimated from standard histologic images to invasive tumor cellularity estimated from confocal images of breast core needle biopsy specimens. Grayscale confocal fluorescence images of breast core needle biopsy specimens were acquired following proflavine application. A breast-dedicated pathologist evaluated invasive tumor cellularity in histologic images with hematoxylin and eosin staining and in grayscale and false-colored confocal images of cores. Agreement between cellularity estimates was quantified using a kappa coefficient. 23 cores from 23 patients with suspected inflammatory breast carcinoma were imaged. Confocal images were acquired in an average of less than 2 min per core. Invasive tumor cellularity estimated from histologic and grayscale confocal images showed moderate agreement by kappa coefficient: κ = 0.48 ± 0.09 (p < 0.001). Grayscale confocal images require less than 2 min for acquisition and allow for evaluation of invasive tumor cellularity in breast core needle biopsy specimens with moderate agreement to histologic images. We show that confocal fluorescence microscopy can be performed immediately following specimen acquisition and could indicate the need for additional biopsies at the initial visit.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2014; 149(1). DOI:10.1007/s10549-014-3182-5 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multistate models are used to characterize individuals' natural histories through diseases with discrete states. Observational data resources based on electronic medical records pose new opportunities for studying such diseases. However, these data consist of observations of the process at discrete sampling times, which may either be pre-scheduled and non-informative, or symptom-driven and informative about an individual's underlying disease status. We have developed a novel joint observation and disease transition model for this setting. The disease process is modeled according to a latent continuous-time Markov chain; and the observation process, according to a Markov-modulated Poisson process with observation rates that depend on the individual's underlying disease status. The disease process is observed at a combination of informative and non-informative sampling times, with possible misclassification error. We demonstrate that the model is computationally tractable and devise an expectation-maximization algorithm for parameter estimation. Using simulated data, we show how estimates from our joint observation and disease transition model lead to less biased and more precise estimates of the disease rate parameters. We apply the model to a study of secondary breast cancer events, utilizing mammography and biopsy records from a sample of women with a history of primary breast cancer.Biometrics 10/2014; 71(1). DOI:10.1111/biom.12252 · 1.52 Impact Factor