Fluoroquinolone-resistant Vibrio cholerae isolated during a cholera outbreak in India.
ABSTRACT During the cholera epidemic of 2002 in and around Hubli, south India, Vibrio cholerae strains resistant to fluoroquinolones were isolated. Among the isolates of V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 serogroups, 55.9% and 47.1% were resistant to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. However, only 12.5% of the O1 serogroup strains were resistant to both norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Though the O139 serogroup strains were susceptible to these antibiotics, they exhibited multidrug resistance. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant V. cholerae that also exhibited multidrug resistance is of great significance in the epidemiology and control of cholera.
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ABSTRACT: Antibiotic resistance patterns amongst clinical V. cholerae O1 isolates Kuma et al. Abstract One of the protocols in the treatment and control of cholera infection is antibiotic therapy. However, increasing rates of antibiotic resistance amongst enteric bacteria including Vibrio cholerae have been reported in V. cholerae V. cholerae O1 to selected and commonly used antimicrobial agents and assessed resistance patterns across year periods. Additionally, the range of antibiotics currently effective for treatment and infection control during cholera outbreaks was ascertained. We screened a cumulative total of 277 isolates archived between 2010 and 2012 from the Greater Accra Region-Ghana, using the disc diffusion method. The recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute were used to interpret our results. Resistance patterns were high for co-trimoxazole 232/241 (96.3%), trimethoprim 265/276 cholerae tetracycline are alternatives in the treatment and control of infection when not contra-indicated. Antibiotic resistance patterns amongst clinical V. cholerae O1 isolates Kuma et al. Introduction Cholera is an infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae O1: El-Tor and Classical biotypes or O139, which produces an enterotoxin. The disease is characterised by acute illness with painless profuse watery diarrhoea with or without vomiting, leading to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not prompt.International Journal of Infection Control 01/2014; DOI:10.3396/IJIC.v10i3.023.14
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ABSTRACT: Pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae are responsible for endemic and pandemic outbreaks of the disease cholera. The complete toxigenic mechanisms underlying virulence in Vibrio strains are poorly understood. The hypothesis of this work was that virulent versus non-virulent strains of V. cholerae harbor distinctive genomic elements that encode virulence. The purpose of this study was to elucidate genomic differences between the O1 serotypes and non-O1 V. cholerae PS15, a non-toxigenic strain, in order to identify novel genes potentially responsible for virulence. In this study, we compared the whole genome of the non-O1 PS15 strain to the whole genomes of toxigenic serotypes at the phylogenetic level, and found that the PS15 genome was distantly related to those of toxigenic V. cholerae. Thus we focused on a detailed gene comparison between PS15 and the distantly related O1 V. cholerae N16961. Based on sequence alignment we tentatively assigned chromosome numbers 1 and 2 to elements within the genome of non-O1 V. cholerae PS15. Further, we found that PS15 and O1 V. cholerae N16961 shared 98% identity and 766 genes, but of the genes present in N16961 that were missing in the non-O1 V. cholerae PS15 genome, 56 were predicted to encode not only for virulence-related genes (colonization, antimicrobial resistance, and regulation of persister cells) but also genes involved in the metabolic biosynthesis of lipids, nucleosides and sulfur compounds. Additionally, we found 113 genes unique to PS15 that were predicted to encode other properties related to virulence, disease, defense, membrane transport, and DNA metabolism. Here, we identified distinctive and novel genomic elements between O1 and non-O1 V. cholerae genomes as potential virulence factors and, thus, targets for future therapeutics. Modulation of such novel targets may eventually enhance eradication efforts of endemic and pandemic disease cholera in afflicted nations.06/2014; 2(1):1-15. DOI:10.7243/2052-7993-2-1
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ABSTRACT: The world's worst cholera epidemic in Haiti (2010) coerced to trace the origin and dissemination of the causative agent Vibrio cholerae O1 for proper management of cholera. Sequence analysis of the Haitian strain showed several variations in the genes encoding cholera toxin B subunit (ctxB); toxin-co-regulated pilus (tcpA), repeat in toxins (rtxA), quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrase A (gyrA), rstB of RS element along with the change in the number of repeat sequences at the promoter region of ctxAB. Our earlier studies showed that variant tcpA (tcpA CIRS) and ctxB (ctxB7) first appeared in Kolkata during 2003 and 2006, respectively. The present study revealed that a variant rtxA was first isolated in Kolkata during 2004 and probably formed the genetic background for the emergence of the ctxB7 allele as we were unable to detect a single strain with the combination of El Tor rtxA and ctxB7. The variant gyrA was first time detected in Kolkata during 1994. The Kolkata strains contained four heptad repeats (TTTTGAT) in their CT promoter regions whereas Haitian strains carried 5 heptad repeats. Haitian strains had 3 nucleotide deletions at the rstB gene, which is a unique feature of the classical biotype strains. But the Kolkata strains did not have such deletion mutations in the rstB. Our study demonstrated the existence of some Haitian genetic traits in Kolkata isolates along with the dissimilarities in genomic content with respect to rstB and ctxAB promoter region. Finally, we conclude that Haitian variant strain may be evolved due to sequential event in the Indian subcontinent strain with some cryptic modification in the genome.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112973. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112973 · 3.53 Impact Factor