Regulation of actin assembly by SCAR/WAVE proteins.
ABSTRACT Actin reorganization is a tightly regulated process that co-ordinates complex cellular events, such as cell migration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and adhesion, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are not well understood. SCAR (suppressor of cAMP receptor)/WAVE [WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein)-family verprolin homology protein] proteins are members of the conserved WASP family of cytoskeletal regulators, which play a critical role in actin dynamics by triggering Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3)-dependent actin nucleation. SCAR/WAVEs are thought to be regulated by a pentameric complex which also contains Abi (Abl-interactor), Nap (Nck-associated protein), PIR121 (p53-inducible mRNA 121) and HSPC300 (haematopoietic stem progenitor cell 300), but the structural organization of the complex and the contribution of its individual components to the regulation of SCAR/WAVE function remain unclear. Additional features of SCAR/WAVE regulation are highlighted by the discovery of other interactors and distinct complexes. It is likely that the combinatorial assembly of different components of SCAR/WAVE complexes will prove to be vital for their roles at the centre of dynamic actin reorganization.
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ABSTRACT: The vascular endothelium is a highly dynamic structure, and the integrity of its barrier function is tightly regulated. Normally impenetrable to cells, the endothelium actively assists lymphocytes to exit the bloodstream during inflammation. The actin cytoskeleton of the endothelial cell (EC) is known to facilitate transmigration, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report that actin assembly in the EC, induced by Arp2/3 complex under control of WAVE2, is important for several steps in the process of transmigration. To begin transmigration, ECs deploy actin-based membrane protrusions that create a cup-shaped docking structure for the lymphocyte. We found that docking structure formation involves the localization and activation of Arp2/3 complex by WAVE2. The next step in transmigration is creation of a migratory pore, and we found that endothelial WAVE2 is needed for lymphocytes to follow a transcellular route through an EC. Later, ECs use actin-based protrusions to close the gap behind the lymphocyte, which we discovered is also driven by WAVE2. Finally, we found that ECs in resting endothelial monolayers use lamellipodial protrusions dependent on WAVE2 to form and maintain contacts and junctions between cells.Molecular Biology of the Cell 10/2014; 25(25). DOI:10.1091/mbc.E14-05-0976 · 4.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cadherins and associated catenins provide an important structural interface between neighboring cells, the actin cytoskeleton, and intracellular signaling pathways in a variety of cell types throughout the Metazoa. However, the full inventory of the proteins and pathways required for cadherin-mediated adhesion has not been established. To this end, we completed a genome-wide (∼14,000 genes) ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) screen that targeted Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion in DE-cadherin-expressing Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells in suspension culture. This novel screen eliminated Ca(2+)-independent cell-cell adhesion, integrin-based adhesion, cell spreading, and cell migration. We identified 17 interconnected regulatory hubs, based on protein functions and protein-protein interactions that regulate the levels of the core cadherin-catenin complex and coordinate cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Representative proteins from these hubs were analyzed further in Drosophila oogenesis, using targeted germline RNAi, and adhesion was analyzed in Madin-Darby canine kidney mammalian epithelial cell-cell adhesion. These experiments reveal roles for a diversity of cellular pathways that are required for cadherin function in Metazoa, including cytoskeleton organization, cell-substrate interactions, and nuclear and cytoplasmic signaling.The Journal of Cell Biology 01/2014; 204(2):265-79. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201306082 · 9.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytoskeletal dynamics during cell behaviours ranging from endocytosis and exocytosis to cell division and movement is controlled by a complex network of signalling pathways, the full details of which are as yet unresolved. Here we show that SILAC-based proteomic methods can be used to characterize the rapid chemoattractant-induced dynamic changes in the actin-myosin cytoskeleton and regulatory elements on a proteome-wide scale with a second to minute timescale resolution. This approach provides novel insights in the ensemble kinetics of key cytoskeletal constituents and association of known and novel identified binding proteins. We validate the proteomic data by detailed microscopy-based analysis of in vivo translocation dynamics for key signalling factors. This rapid large-scale proteomic approach may be applied to other situations where highly dynamic changes in complex cellular compartments are expected to play a key role.Nature Communications 02/2014; 5:3319. DOI:10.1038/ncomms4319 · 10.74 Impact Factor