Diseases of adipose tissue: genetic and acquired lipodystrophies.
ABSTRACT Human lipodystrophies represent a group of diseases characterized by altered body fat amount and/or repartition and major metabolic alterations with insulin resistance leading to diabetic complications and increased cardiovascular and hepatic risk. Genetic forms of lipodystrophies are rare. Congenital generalized lipodystrophy or Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, autosomal recessive, is characterized by a complete early lipoatrophy and severe insulin resistance and results, in most cases, from mutations either in the seipin gene of unknown function or AGPAT2 encoding an enzyme involved in triacylglycerol synthesis. The Dunnigan syndrome [FPLD2 (familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dunnigan type)] is due to mutations in LMNA encoding the lamin A/C, belonging to the complex group of laminopathies that could comprise muscular and cardiac dystrophies, neuropathies and syndromes of premature aging. Some FPLDs are linked to loss-of-function mutations in the PPAR-gamma gene (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma; FPLD3) with severe metabolic alterations but a less severe lipodystrophy compared with FPLD2. The metabolic syndrome, acquired, represents the most common form of lipodystrophy. HIV-infected patients often present lipodystrophies, mainly related to side effects of antiretroviral drugs together with insulin resistance and metabolic alterations. Such syndromes help to understand the mechanisms involved in insulin resistance resulting from altered fat repartition and could benefit from insulin-sensitizing effects of lifestyle modifications or of specific medications.
SourceAvailable from: Gabriel C Camargo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dunnigan type Familial Partial Lipodystrophy (FPLD) is characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat from the limbs and excessive accumulation on the visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Affected individuals have insulin resistance (IR), diabetes, dyslipidemia and early cardiovascular (CV) events, due to their imbalanced distribution of total body fat (TBF). Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is correlated with VAT. Hence, EAT could be a new index of cardiac and visceral adiposity with great potential as a marker of CV risk in FPLD. Compare EAT in FPLD patients versus healthy controls. Moreover, we aimed to verify if EFT is related to anthropometrical (ATPM) and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) measures, as well as laboratory blood findings. We postulated that FPLD patients have enlarged EAT. This is an observational, cross-sectional study. Six patients with a confirmed mutation in the LMNA gene for FPLD were enrolled in the study. Six sex, age and BMI-matched healthy controls were also selected. EFT was measured by transthoracic echocardiography (ECHO). All participants had body fat distribution evaluated by ATPM and by DEXA measures. Fasting blood samples were obtained for biochemical profiles and also for leptin measurements. Median EFT was significantly higher in the FPLD group than in matched controls (6.0 ± 3.6 mm vs. 0.0 ± 2.04 mm; p = 0.0306). Additionally, FPLD patients had lower leptin values. There was no significant correlation between EAT and ATPM and DEXA measurements, nor laboratory findings. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that EAT measured by ECHO is increased in FPLD patients, compared to healthy controls. However, it failed to prove a significant relation neither between EAT and DEXA, ATPM or laboratory variables analyzed.Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 04/2015; 7:29. DOI:10.1186/s13098-015-0024-5 · 2.50 Impact Factor