Diseases of adipose tissue: genetic and acquired lipodystrophies.

INSERM U680, Saint-Antoine Faculty of Medicine, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris, France.
Biochemical Society Transactions (Impact Factor: 3.24). 12/2005; 33(Pt 5):1073-7. DOI: 10.1042/BST20051073
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human lipodystrophies represent a group of diseases characterized by altered body fat amount and/or repartition and major metabolic alterations with insulin resistance leading to diabetic complications and increased cardiovascular and hepatic risk. Genetic forms of lipodystrophies are rare. Congenital generalized lipodystrophy or Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, autosomal recessive, is characterized by a complete early lipoatrophy and severe insulin resistance and results, in most cases, from mutations either in the seipin gene of unknown function or AGPAT2 encoding an enzyme involved in triacylglycerol synthesis. The Dunnigan syndrome [FPLD2 (familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dunnigan type)] is due to mutations in LMNA encoding the lamin A/C, belonging to the complex group of laminopathies that could comprise muscular and cardiac dystrophies, neuropathies and syndromes of premature aging. Some FPLDs are linked to loss-of-function mutations in the PPAR-gamma gene (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma; FPLD3) with severe metabolic alterations but a less severe lipodystrophy compared with FPLD2. The metabolic syndrome, acquired, represents the most common form of lipodystrophy. HIV-infected patients often present lipodystrophies, mainly related to side effects of antiretroviral drugs together with insulin resistance and metabolic alterations. Such syndromes help to understand the mechanisms involved in insulin resistance resulting from altered fat repartition and could benefit from insulin-sensitizing effects of lifestyle modifications or of specific medications.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare disorder characterized by near complete absence of adipose tissue from birth. At least 2 genes located in 9q34 (AGPAT2) and 11q13 (Seipin) are implicated in type 1 and 2, respectively, and result in insulin resistance. We report here a novel case of CGL type 1 resulting from a novel homozygote mutation in the AGPAT2 gene. The clinical picture included pseudoathletic muscular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, enlarged liver, hypermetabolism rate, and hyperinsulinemia in a 1-year-old child from Libya. Peripheral hypertonia and reflex excitability revealed signal abnormalities in white matter on magnetic resonance imagery, which has not been described previously in the literature.
    Archives de Pédiatrie 01/2009; 16(1):27-31. · 0.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lipodystrophy is a group of acquired and inherited disorders characterized by selective loss of adipose tissue. Despite wide genotypic and phenotypic variety, many patients with lipodystrophy have similar metabolic complications including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. Often, these metabolic abnormalities are severe and difficult to treat with conventional glucose and lipid-lowering therapies. Lack of adipose tissue also results in marked hypoleptinemia, and there has recently been much interest in using leptin-replacement therapy to treat the metabolic complications of lipodystrophy. Administration of metreleptin, the human recombinant leptin analogue, has been shown in prospective, open-label studies to improve glucose control, dyslipidemia and steatohepatitis. This article summarizes the current evidence for the safety and efficacy of leptin-replacement therapy in patients with lipodystrophy.
    Expert Review of Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 04/2014; 9(3).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Not all obese individuals display the metabolic disturbances commonly associated with excess fat accumulation. Mechanisms maintaining this 'metabolically healthy obesity' (MHO) are as yet unknown. We aimed to study different fat depots and transcriptional pathways in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) as related to the MHO phenomenon. Sixteen rare young adult obesity-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs (intra-pair difference (∆) in BMI ≥3 kg/m(2)), aged 22.8-35.8 years, were examined for detailed characteristics of metabolic health (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and liver fat [magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy]), OGTT, lipids, adipokines and C-reactive protein (CRP). Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 chips were used to analyse transcriptomics pathways related to mitochondrial function and inflammation in SAT. Based on liver fat accumulation, two metabolically different subgroups emerged. In half (8/16) of the pairs (∆weight 17.1 ± 2.0 kg), the obese co-twin had significantly higher liver fat (∆718%), 78% increase in AUC insulin during OGTT and CRP, significantly more disturbance in the lipid profile and greater tendency for hypertension compared with the lean co-twin. In these obese co-twins, SAT expression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, fatty acid oxidation and adipocyte differentiation pathways were downregulated and chronic inflammation upregulated. In the other eight pairs (∆weight 17.4 ± 2.8 kg), the obese co-twin did not differ from the non-obese co-twin in liver fat (∆8%), insulin sensitivity, CRP, lipids, blood pressure or SAT transcriptomics. Our results suggest that maintenance of high mitochondrial transcription and lack of inflammation in SAT are associated with low liver fat and MHO.
    Diabetologia 10/2013; · 6.88 Impact Factor