"Lock-in" modified cyclosal nucleotides--the second generation of cyclosal prodrugs.
ABSTRACT A new generation of cycloSal-pronucleotides is presented. CycloSal-d4TMPs have been modified by introduction of an esterase-cleavable site in order to trap them inside cells. Hydrolysis studies in different media (PBS, CEM/0- and liver extracts) and anti-HIV evaluation of separated diastereomers revealed unexpected differences between the isomers.
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ABSTRACT: The synthesis, hydrolysis, and antiviral evaluation of novel, lipophilic cycloSal-d4TMP derivatives 3a-h of the anti-HIV dideoxynucleoside 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine (d4T, 1) are reported. This pro-nucleotide concept has been designed to deliver d4TMP (2) by selective chemical hydrolysis. All compounds 3a-h were synthesized using phosphorus(III) chemistry in good yields and in somewhat lower yields using phosphorus(V) chemistry starting from substituted salicyl alcohols 6a-h. The phosphotriesters 3 were obtained without stereochemical preference with respect to the configuration at the phosphorus center as 1:1 diastereomeric mixtures. However, a few of the triesters 3 could be separated into the diastereomers by means of semipreparative HPLC. In a 1-octanol/phosphate buffer mixture, all compounds 3 exhibited 9-100-fold higher lipophilicity as judged from their Pa values as compared to d4T (1). Furthermore, in hydrolysis studies 3 decomposed under mild aqueous basic conditions releasing solely d4TMP (2) and the diols 6 following the designed tandem reaction sequence. A correlation of the electronic properties introduced by the substituents and the half-lives of triesters 3 was observed. Thus, by varying the substituent, the half-lives of 3 could be adjusted over a wide range of compounds still delivering d4TMP (2) selectively. Phosphotriesters 3 exhibited considerable activity against HIV-1 and HIV-2 in wild-type human T-lymphocyte (CEM/O) cells as well as mutant thymidine kinase-deficient (CEM/TK-) cells. Surprisingly, we observed a 3-80-fold difference in antiviral activity between the two diastereomers. Our data clearly prove that the cycloSal-d4TMPs deliver exclusively the nucleotide d4TMP not only under simulated hydrolysis conditions but also under cellular conditions and thus fulfill the thymidine kinase-bypass premise. Therefore, the cycloSal-nucleotide concept is the first reported pro-nucleotide system that delivers the dideoxynucleotide by a pH-driven, chemically activated, tandem reaction without the requirement of an enzymatic contribution.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/1998; 41(9):1417-27. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A conceptual extension of the cycloSal-pronucleotide approach is presented. The characteristic feature of the new cycloSal-derivatives of the anti-HIV active nucleoside analogue d4T 1 is the incorporation of an enzymatically cleavable carboxylic ester moiety with the intention to trap the triesters inside cells ("lock-in"-concept). CycloSal-triesters bearing different ester groups in the 3-or 5-position of the cycloSal-moiety are described. Surprisingly, only acetyl-and levulinyl esters are cleaved readily in CEM cell extracts while alkyl esters were found to be stable. Nevertheless, in in-vitro anti-HIV assays most of the compounds achieve the thymidine-kinase bypass, thus proving that they act at least as nucleotide delivery systems.Nucleosides Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids 02/2004; 23(1-2):89-115. · 0.71 Impact Factor
- Helvetica Chimica Acta - HELV CHIM ACTA. 01/1965; 48(7):1746-1771.