Synthesis and biochemical properties of novel mRNA 5' cap analogs resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis.
ABSTRACT A series of new dinucleotide cap analogs with methylene groups replacing oxygens within the pyrophosphate moieties have been synthesized. All the compounds were resistant to the human scavenger decapping hydrolase, DcpS. Binding constants of the modified caps to eIF4E are comparable to those obtained for m7GpppG. This suggests these methylene modifications in the pyrophosphate chain do not significantly affect cap-binding at least for eIF4E. These cap analogs are also good inhibitors of in vitro translation. mRNAs capped with novel analogs were translated similarly to the mRNA capped with the parent m7GpppG.
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ABSTRACT: We recently demonstrated that the major decapping activity in mammalian cells involves DcpS, a scavenger pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes the residual cap structure following 3' to 5' decay of an mRNA. The association of DcpS with 3' to 5' exonuclease exosome components suggests that these two activities are linked and there is a coupled exonucleolytic decay-dependent decapping pathway. We purified DcpS from mammalian cells and identified the cDNA encoding a novel 40 kDa protein possessing DcpS activity. Consistent with purified DcpS, the recombinant protein specifically hydrolyzed methylated cap analog but did not hydrolyze unmethylated cap analog nor did it function on intact capped RNA. Sequence alignments of DcpS from different organisms revealed the presence of a conserved hexapeptide, containing a histidine triad (HIT) sequence with three histidines separated by hydrophobic residues. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that the central histidine within the DcpS HIT motif is critical for decapping activity and defines the HIT motif as a new mRNA decapping domain, making DcpS the first member of the HIT family of proteins with a defined biological function.The EMBO Journal 10/2002; 21(17):4699-708. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Synthetic analogs of the 5'-terminal caps of eukaryotic mRNAs and snRNAs are used in elucidating such physiological processes as mRNA translation, pre-mRNA splicing, intracellular transport of mRNA and snRNAs, and mRNA turnover. Particularly useful are RNAs capped with synthetic analogs, which are produced by in vitro transcription of a DNA template using a bacteriophage RNA polymerase in the presence of ribonucleoside triphosphates and a cap dinucleotide such as m(7)Gp(3)G. Unfortunately, because of the presence of a 3'-OH on both the m(7)Guo and Guo moieties, up to half of the mRNAs contain caps incorporated in the reverse orientation. Previously we designed and synthesized two "anti-reverse" cap analogs (ARCAs), m(7)3'dGp(3)G and m(2)(7,3'-)(O)Gp(3)G, that cannot be incorporated in the reverse orientation because of modifications at the C3' position of m(7)Guo. In the present study, we have synthesized seven new cap analogs modified in the C2' and C3' positions of m(7)Guo and in the number of phosphate residues, m(2)(7,2'-)(O)Gp(3)G, m(7)2'dGp(3)G, m(7)2'dGp(4)G, m(2)(7,2'-)(O)Gp(4)G, m(2)(7,3'-)(O)Gp(4)G, m(7)Gp(5)G, and m(2)(7,3'-)(O)Gp(5)G. These were analyzed for conformation in solution, binding affinity to eIF4E, inhibition of in vitro translation, degree of reverse capping during in vitro transcription, capping efficiency, and the ability to stimulate cap-dependent translation in vitro when incorporated into mRNA. The results indicate that modifications at C2', like those at C3', prevent reverse incorporation, that tetra- and pentaphosphate cap analogs bind eIF4E and inhibit translation more strongly than their triphosphate counterparts, and that tetraphosphate ARCAs promote cap-dependent translation more effectively than previous cap analogs.RNA 10/2003; 9(9):1108-22. · 5.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A central issue in the study of neoplastic transformation is to understand how proto-oncogene products deregulate normal processes of cell growth and differentiation: an intrinsic aspect of this is to probe the sequence of events leading to altered expression of proto-oncogenes. In the past few years, studies aimed at understanding the regulation and function of protein synthesis initiation factors, eIF4E initially, culminated in the unexpected finding that a moderate overexpression of this factor results in dramatic phenotypic changes, including rapid proliferation and malignant transformation. Conversely, the tumorigenic properties of cancer cells can be strongly inhibited by antisense-RNA against eIF4E, or overexpression of the inhibitory proteins: 4E-BPs. Furthermore, eIF4E is elevated in carcinomas of the breast, head and neck (HNSCC) and prostate, but not in typical benign lesions. This is a strong indication that elevated eIF4E expression may mark a critical transition in cancer progression. Establishing a greater protein synthesis output may be a necessary step for cancer cells in order to sustain their rapid proliferation. However, analysis of cells transformed by eIF4E revealed that the synthesis of only a few proteins was greatly enhanced, while synthesis of most was minimally increased. One possible explanation is that eIF4E causes these effects by specifically increasing the translational efficiency of several oncogene transcripts, leading to overexpression of their products. The feasibility of this hypothesis was confirmed experimentally with the identification of several important products that are specifically upregulated in eIF4E-overexpressing cells. These include: c-Myc, cyclin DI and ODC, which control cycle progression and tumorigenesis; basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are powerful promoters of cell growth and angiogenesis. A deeper understanding of the mRNAs that are strongly dependent on excess eIF4E/F for efficient translation will eventually result in fuller understanding of the fundamental role of translational control in different pathophysiological conditions, including malignancy.The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 02/1999; 31(1):59-72. · 4.15 Impact Factor