Peripheral Vision Can Influence Eye Growth and Refractive Development in Infant Monkeys

College of Optometry, University of Houston, TX 77204, USA.
Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science (Impact Factor: 3.4). 12/2005; 46(11):3965-72. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.05-0445
Source: PubMed


Given the prominence of central vision in humans, it has been assumed that visual signals from the fovea dominate emmetropization. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of peripheral vision on emmetropization.
Bilateral, peripheral form deprivation was produced in 12 infant monkeys by rearing them with diffusers that had either 4- or 8-mm apertures centered on the pupils of each eye, to allow 24 degrees or 37 degrees of unrestricted central vision, respectively. At the end of the lens-rearing period, an argon laser was used to ablate the fovea in one eye of each of seven monkeys. Subsequently, all the animals were allowed unrestricted vision. Refractive error and axial dimensions were measured along the pupillary axis by retinoscopy and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively. Control data were obtained from 21 normal monkeys and 3 infants reared with binocular plano lenses.
Nine of the 12 treated monkeys had refractive errors that fell outside the 10th- and 90th-percentile limits for the age-matched control subjects, and the average refractive error for the treated animals was more variable and significantly less hyperopic/more myopic (+0.03 +/- 2.39 D vs. +2.39 +/- 0.92 D). The refractive changes were symmetric in the two eyes of a given animal and axial in nature. After lens removal, all the treated monkeys recovered from the induced refractive errors. No interocular differences in the recovery process were observed in the animals with monocular foveal lesions.
On the one hand, the peripheral retina can contribute to emmetropizing responses and to ametropias produced by an abnormal visual experience. On the other hand, unrestricted central vision is not sufficient to ensure normal refractive development, and the fovea is not essential for emmetropizing responses.

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Available from: Chea-Su Kee, Mar 25, 2014
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    • "The fitting of contact lenses with increased negative spherical aberration may be advantageous when aiming for a better HCVA, but the opposite occurs when trying to control myopia progression since increased negative spherical aberration leads to an increase in relative peripheral hyperopia. However, to achieve the required myopia control effect based on the Smith hypothesis [11], single vision lenses should preferably exhibit positive spherical aberration in order to bring peripheral image shell forward. As observed in the power profile measurements of the À1.00D lenses, Wagner et al. showed that the Night and Day lens was the only test lens that "
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    ABSTRACT: To assess visual performance of single vision and multifocal soft contact lenses. At baseline, forty-four myopic participants (aged 18-35 years) were fitted bilaterally with a control lens (AirOptix Aqua). At the four follow-up visits, a total of 16 study lenses (5 single vision, 11 multifocal lenses) were fitted contralaterally. After 1h of lens wear, participants rated (scale 1-10) vision clarity (distance, intermediate and near), magnitude of ghosting at distance, comfort during head movement, and overall comfort. Distance high contrast visual acuity (HCVA), central refraction and higher order aberrations, and contact lens centration were measured. For single vision lenses, vision ratings were not significantly different to the control (p>0.005). The control outperformed Acuvue Oasys, Clariti Monthly and Night and Day in HCVA (mean VA: -0.10±0.07 logMAR, p<0.005). Most refraction and higher order aberration measures were not different between lenses. The Night and Day lens showed greatest differences compared to the control, i.e., C[4, 0] was more positive (p<0.005) at distance (Δ=0.019μm) and near (Δ=0.028μm). For multifocal lenses, the majority of vision ratings (84%) were better with the control (p<0.005). HCVA was better with the control (p<0.005). Proclear Multifocal lenses showed greatest differences for M, C[3, -1] and C[4, 0] at distance and near, and were inferiorly de-centered (p<0.005). Design differences between single vision lenses had a small impact on visual performance. Lenses featuring multifocality decreased visual performance, in particular when power variations across the optic zone were large and/or the lens was significantly de-centered. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Contact lens & anterior eye: the journal of the British Contact Lens Association 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.clae.2015.07.005 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    • "These tissues were separated by fine dissection from 5 mm trephine punches taken from the posterior pole region that included the macular region, where most of the scleral distension and related retinal thinning occurs in high myopia. An additional, more peripheral punch was collected at least 8 mm away from the fovea, the decision to collect this additional sample being driven by recent interest in the role of the peripheral retina in the regulation of refractive errors and ocular shape [19] [20]. Scleral samples were wiped clean with phosphate-buffered saline, snap frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80° C until processed. "
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    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78984. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078984 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "The image quality at the central retina, the fovea, did not have an impact. While form deprivation in the retinal periphery accelerated elongation of the eye, resulting in myopia, even complete elimination of the central fovea with LASER ablation did not change the regular growth pattern [9]. "
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