Effect of omeprazole on the hydroxylation of warfarin enantiomers in human: In-vitro studies with liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 isozymes
ABSTRACT Clinically observed warfarin-omeprazole interaction has been found to be associated with the inhibition of R-warfarin hydroxylation by omeprazole. The present study was conducted in human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450s to assess the inhibitory potential of omeprazole on the hydroxylation of warfarin enantiomers, and to identify the cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in the inhibition of hydroxylation of warfarin enantiomers by omeprazole, and to evaluate the extent to which the in vitro data is predictive of the actual pharmacokinetic interaction between warfarin and omeprazole observed in vivo. Omeprazole inhibited the formation of R-6-, R-7- and S-7-hydroxywarfarin with the Ki values of 40, 22 and 116 microM, respectively. Its inhibitory effect was selective towards R-warfarin. Further study conducted in cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450s (CYPs) demonstrates that the inhibition of the in-vitro biotransformation of warfarin enantiomers by omeprazole is attributed to its inhibitory effect on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. The extent of the in vivo warfarin-omeprazole interaction was underestimated as based on the Ki values obtained from the in-vitro inhibition study, suggesting an underestimation of the effective concentration of the inhibitor at the site of interaction or some other mechanisms involved in the drug interaction between warfarin and omeprazole.
- Personalized Medicine 08/2007; 4(3):321-328. DOI:10.2217/17410518.104.22.1681 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this case-control study were to identify in vitamin K antagonist (VKA)-treated unselected patients, factors associated with international normalised ratio (INR) values: (i) greater than 6.0.; and (ii) ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 complicated with bleeding. We also assessed VKA-related morbidity in these patients. During a two-month period, 4,188 consecutive and unselected patients were referred to our Emergency Department. At admission, the medical records of each patient and two age- and sex-matched controls were reviewed for: both duration and indication of VKA therapy, previous medical history of VKA-related haemorrhage, underlying co-morbidities, concomitant medications other than VKA, duration of hospitalization and deaths' causes. Of these 4,188 subjects, 50 case-patients (1.19%) were identified; both case-patients and controls did not differ as regards indications and patterns of VKA therapy. Interestingly, two-thirds of case-patients were women, suggesting that female gender may be a risk factor of VKA over-coagulation onset. We identified the following risk factors of VKA over-coagulation: previous medical history of INR levels over therapeutic range, therapy with antibiotics, amiodarone and proton pump inhibitors, as well as fever. A total of 88% of case-patients were hospitalized; mean duration of patients' hospitalization was seven days [range: 1-56 days]; no patient died from major bleeding. Our study underscores that it is of utmost importance to consider the strength of indication before starting VKA therapy, as this therapy has been responsible for as high as 1.19% of admissions in unselected subjects referred to an Emergency Department. Our data therefore suggest that internists should be aware of VKA-related high morbidity, particularly in situations at risk of VKA over-coagulation.Thrombosis and Haemostasis 11/2008; 100(4):685-92. DOI:10.1160/TH08-04-0265 · 5.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: See also Rulcova A, Prokopova I, Krausova L, Bitman M, Vrzal R, Dvorak Z, Blahos J, Pavek P. Stereoselective interactions of warfarin enantiomers with the pregnane X nuclear receptor in gene regulation of major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes. This issue, pp 2708–17.Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 12/2010; 8(12):2705-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2010.04097.x · 5.55 Impact Factor