Hierarchical linear modeling analyses of NEO-PI-R scales in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

Laboratory of Personality and Cognition, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD 21224-6825, USA.
Psychology and Aging (Impact Factor: 2.73). 10/2005; 20(3):493-506. DOI: 10.1037/0882-7974.20.3.493
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The authors examined age trends in the 5 factors and 30 facets assessed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory in Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging data (N=1,944; 5,027 assessments) collected between 1989 and 2004. Consistent with cross-sectional results, hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed gradual personality changes in adulthood: a decline in Neuroticism up to age 80, stability and then decline in Extraversion, decline in Openness, increase in Agreeableness, and increase in Conscientiousness up to age 70. Some facets showed different curves from the factor they define. Birth cohort effects were modest, and there were no consistent Gender x Age interactions. Significant nonnormative changes were found for all 5 factors; they were not explained by attrition but might be due to genetic factors, disease, or life experience.

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Available from: Paul Costa, Jan 19, 2014
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    • "The data collected within APPOC were compared with data from two published studies: (a) NEO-PI-R informant ratings of college-age and adult targets from the 50 cultures of the PPOC project (McCrae & Terracciano, 2005a), and (b) NEO-PI-R selfreport data from college-age and adult respondents from 25 cultures (Costa et al., 2001). "
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    • "Across studies, neuroticism shows a negative linear trend across adulthood, and it has been suggested that this reflects a variety of changes that may continue to occur across most of adulthood, including increases in competence, vocational success, and emotional regulation abilities (e.g., Allemand et al. 2008; Roberts et al. 2006; Soto et al. 2011; Srivastava et al. 2003). There is also evidence of gender differences in the relationship between age and neuroticism, although findings are frequently inconsistent across studies (e.g., Lucas and Donnellan 2009; Soto et al. 2011; Srivastava et al. 2003; Terracciano et al. 2005; van Branje et al. 2007; Donnellan and Lucas 2008; see Roberts et al. 2006 for a meta-analysis), and so the analyses of interactions of age with gender are exploratory in the current study. "
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    • "Although Angst et al. [3], who reported results similar to ours in terms of heritability estimates and some correlates of cold-pressor pain and heat pain, included subjects in the age range 18 to 70 years, the median age of the 228 individuals who completed their study was 29 years. Importantly, research has documented significant changes in personality trait levels and trait manifestations in adulthood [45] [49]. It is thus conceivable that the relation between personality traits and other response dispositions, such as pain sensitivity, may change across developmental phases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Factors underlying individual differences in pain responding are incompletely understood, but are likely to include genetic influences on basal pain sensitivity in addition to demographic characteristics such as age, sex, and ethnicity, and psychological factors including personality. This study sought to explore the relationship between personality traits and experimental pain sensitivity, and to determine to what extent the covariances between these phenotypes are mediated by common genetic and environmental factors. A sample composed of 188 twins, ages 23 to 35years, was included in the study. Heat pain intensity (HPI) and cold-pressor pain intensity (CPI) ratings were obtained using standardized pain testing procedures, and personality traits were assessed with the NEO Personality Inventory, Revised. Associations between personality and the pain sensitivity indices were examined using zero-order correlations and generalized estimating equations. Bivariate Cholesky models were used in the biometric analyses. The most robust finding was a significant phenotypic association between CPI and the personality facets Impulsiveness (a facet of Neuroticism) and Excitement-Seeking (a facet of Extraversion), and estimates of the genetic correlation were .37 (P<.05) and .43 (P<.05), respectively. In contrast, associations between HPI and personality seemed weak and unstable, but a significant effect of Angry Hostility (a facet of Neuroticism) emerged in generalized estimating equations analysis. Although the genetic correlation between these phenotypes was essentially zero, a weak but significant individual-specific environmental correlation emerged (re=.21, P<.05). Taken together, these findings suggest that CPI is more consistently related to personality dispositions than HPI, both phenotypically and genetically.
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