Soy processing affects metabolism and disposition of dietary isoflavones in ovariectomized BALB/c mice.
ABSTRACT Soy foods and nutritional supplements are widely consumed for potential health benefits. It was previously shown that isoflavone-supplemented diets, which contained equal genistein equivalents, differentially stimulated mammary tumor growth in athymic mice based on the degree of processing. This paper reports plasma pharmacokinetic analysis and metabolite identification using the parental mouse strain fed the same diets, which contained genistin, mixed isoflavones, Novasoy, soy molasses, or soy flour plus mixed isoflavones. Whereas the degree of soy processing did affect several parameters reflecting isoflavone bioavailability and gut microflora metabolism of daidzein to equol, stimulation of tumor growth correlated significantly with only the plasma concentration of aglycon genistein produced by the diets. This conclusion is consistent with the known estrogen agonist activity of genistein aglycon on mammary tumor growth. Conversely, plasma equol concentration was inversely correlated with the degree of soy processing. Although antagonism of genistein-stimulated tumor growth by equol could explain this result, the very low concentration of aglycon equol in plasma (12-fold lower relative to genistein) is inconsistent with any effect. These findings underscore the importance of food processing, which can remove non-nutritive components from soy, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of isoflavones. Such changes in diet composition affect circulating, and presumably target tissue, concentrations of genistein aglycon, which initiates estrogen receptor-mediated processes required for the stimulation of tumor growth in a mouse model for postmenopausal breast cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Recent findings indicate that soy isoflavones and their metabolites may play a role in mitigating post-menopausal bone loss. Equol, a metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein produced by intestinal bacteria, has shown some potential, but only 30-50% of US population is capable of converting dietary daidzein to equol. There are limited data on the pharmacokinetics of dietary racemic equol and its metabolites. This study was conducted to assess the levels of equol and its conjugates in plasma for a 24 h period resulting from oral administration of dietary daidzein and racemic equol in ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats. Plasma samples were analyzed for conjugated and free forms of equol using LC-MS/MS. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax¬) and time to reach it (Tmax¬) for total equol (conjugated and unconjugated) were 8815±2988 nmol/L & 2.17± 2.91 h and 3682±2675 nmol/L & 20.67±4.67 h, for dietary equol and daidzein, respectively. Although the majority of equol metabolites present were glucuronide conjugates (≥99%), there were low levels of equol monosulfate present. The changes in equol metabolism, specifically equol conjugates, due to form of equol may play a role in the potential health benefits of equol.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 01/2014; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of over-the-counter botanical estrogens containing isolated soy isoflavones, including genistein and daidzein, has become a popular alternative to traditional hormone therapies. Menopausal women use these products as an aide in healthy aging, including for the maintenance of cognitive function. The safety and efficacy of many of these commercial preparations remains unknown. Previous research in our lab found that treatment of ovariectomized (OVX) female Long-Evans rats with genistein impaired working memory in an operant delayed spatial alternation (DSA) task and response learning in a plus-maze, but enhanced place learning assessed in the plus-maze. The present study further examined the effects of isolated isoflavones on working memory and place learning by treating middle-aged (12-13month old) OVX female Long-Evans rats with S-equol, the exclusive enantiomer produced by metabolism of daidzein in the mammalian gut. S-equol binds selectively to ERβ with an affinity similar to that of genistein but has low transcriptional potency. For DSA testing, S-equol at 1.94, 0.97mg, or 0mg (sucrose control) was orally administered to animals daily, 30minutes before behavioral testing, and again both 4 and 8hours after the first treatment. Rats were tested on the DSA task following the first, morning dose. For place learning, rats received 0.97mgS-equol every 4hours during the light portion of the cycle beginning 48hours prior to behavioral testing (total exposure 8.7mgS-equol). S-equol treatment was largely without effect on the DSA and place learning tasks. This is the first study to test the behavioral effects of isolated S-equol in OVX rodents, and shows that, unlike genistein or estradiol, repeated daily treatment with this isoflavone metabolite does not alter learning and memory processes in middle-aged OVX rats.Neurotoxicology and Teratology 12/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The long-term effect of exposure to relevant dietary levels of genistein (GEN) on estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) human breast cancer (MCF-7) progression after GEN withdrawal in athymic mice xenograft model was studied. Feeding studies were conducted to determine the estrogenic effect of diets on MCF-7 tumor growth: (1) implantation (19 weeks) and withdrawal (6 weeks) of 17β-estradiol (E2 ); (2) dietary GEN 500 and 750 ppm during treatment/withdrawal for 23/10 and 15/9 weeks, respectively; and, (3) dietary soy protein isolate (SPI) containing GEN 180 ppm for 31/9 weeks of treatment/withdrawal. MCF-7 tumors grew fast in the presence of E2 implantation and abruptly regressed completely after E2 withdrawal. At different rates, dietary GEN alone (500 and 750 ppm) and GEN (180 ppm)-containing SPI stimulated MCF-7 tumor growth. After removal of the stimulus diet, tumors induced by 750 ppm GEN, but not 500 ppm GEN or SPI, regressed completely. The protein expression of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was higher in the GEN- and SPI-induced nonregressing (GINR) tumors compared to MCF-7 and E2 controls. Long-term consumption of low GEN doses (≤500 ppm) promotes MCF-7 tumor growth and results in GINR tumors with more aggressive and advanced growth phenotypes.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 02/2014; · 4.91 Impact Factor