Article

The Association of Comorbid Depression With Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States
Diabetes Care (Impact Factor: 8.57). 12/2005; 28(11):2668-72. DOI: 10.2337/diacare.28.11.2668
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We assessed whether patients with comorbid minor and major depression and type 2 diabetes had a higher mortality rate over a 3-year period compared with patients with diabetes alone.
In a large health maintenance organization (HMO), 4,154 patients with type 2 diabetes were surveyed and followed for up to 3 years. Patients initially filled out a written questionnaire, and HMO-automated diagnostic, laboratory, and pharmacy data and Washington State mortality data were collected to assess diabetes complications and deaths. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios of death for each group compared with the reference group.
There were 275 (8.3%) deaths in 3,303 patients without depression compared with 48 (13.6%) deaths in 354 patients with minor depression and 59 (11.9%) deaths among 497 patients with major depression. A proportional hazards model with adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment found that compared with the nondepressed group, minor depression was associated with a 1.67-fold increase in mortality (P = 0.003), and major depression was associated with a 2.30-fold increase (P < 0.0001). In a second model that controlled for multiple potential mediators, both minor and major depression remained significant predictors of mortality.
Among patients with diabetes, both minor and major depression are strongly associated with increased mortality. Further research will be necessary to disentangle causal relationships among depression, behavioral risk factors (adherence to medical regimens), diabetes complications, and mortality.

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    • "Importantly, this increased risk is also associated with negative outcomes such as increased rates of diabetic complications (Katon et al., 2005) and greater mortality rates, particularly in women (Pan et al., 2011). As associated disorders, there is growing evidence that suggests that they also may share similar underlying neurobiological substrates. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between verbal learning and memory performance and hippocampal volume in subjects with co-morbid type 2 diabetes and major depression compared with healthy control subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes alone. Methods Twenty four subjects with type 2 diabetes and 20 subjects with type 2 diabetes and major depression were recruited from endocrinology clinics and were compared with 32 healthy control subjects recruited from the community. Subjects were scanned on a 1.5 T GE scanner, and hippocampal volumes were measured using Freesurfer. The California Verbal Learning Test assessed learning and memory. Significant predictors of verbal learning performance (e.g., age, gender, education, blood pressure, stroke risk, hemoglobin A1c, and hippocampal volume) were determined using a stepwise linear regression. ResultsSubjects with diabetes and depression had significantly worse performance on verbal list learning compared with healthy control subjects. Hippocampal volume was a strong predictor of performance in healthy control subjects, and age and hippocampal volume were strong predictors in subjects with type 2 diabetes alone. Age alone was a significant predictor of verbal learning performance in subjects with diabetes and depression. Conclusions The relationship between hippocampal volume and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test is decoupled in subjects with type 2 diabetes and major depression and this decoupling may contribute to poor verbal learning and memory performance in this study population. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 04/2015; 30(4). DOI:10.1002/gps.4149 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "). Sufferers of both Type 2 diabetes and depression are at greater risk for complications over five years (Lin et al., 2010), including mortality (Katon et al., 2005; Roglic and Unwin, 2010), compared to those without depression. Given the bidirectional relationship (Mezuk et al., 2008) and comorbidity between depression and diabetes, it is not surprising that many of the same poor lifestyle factors associated with Type 2 diabetes, specifically diet and physical activity, are also associated with depression (Strine et al., 2008; Weber et al., 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes and depression are commonly comorbid high-prevalence chronic disorders. Diet is a key diabetes risk factor and recent research has highlighted the relevance of diet as a possible risk for factor common mental disorders. This study aimed to investigate the interrelationship among dietary patterns, diabetes and depression. METHODS: Data were integrated from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (2009-2010) for adults aged 18+ (n=4588, Mean age=43yr). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and diabetes status determined via self-report, usage of diabetic medication and/or fasting glucose levels >/=126mg/dL and a glycated hemoglobin level >/=6.5% (48mmol/mol). A 24-h dietary recall interview was given to determine intakes. Multiple logistic regression was employed, with depression the outcome, and dietary patterns and diabetes the predictors. Covariates included gender, age, marital status, education, race, adult food insecurity level, ratio of family income to poverty, and serum C-reactive protein. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis revealed five dietary patterns (healthy; unhealthy; sweets; 'Mexican' style; breakfast) explaining 39.8% of the total variance. The healthy dietary pattern was associated with reduced odds of depression for those with diabetes (OR 0.68, 95% CI [0.52, 0.88], p=0.006) and those without diabetes (OR 0.79, 95% CI [0.64, 0.97], p=0.029) (interaction p=0.048). The relationship between the sweets dietary pattern and depression was fully explained by diabetes status. CONCLUSION: In this study, a healthy dietary pattern was associated with a reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms, especially for those with Type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 11/2014; 174C:215-224. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.030 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Studies of the economics of treatment of depression among diabetic patients have yielded positive results. The health care expenses sustained by individuals with diabetes and depression are higher than those with diabetes alone [47,48]. "
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    BMC Public Health 02/2014; 14(1):163. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-163 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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