Cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity is enhanced by elevated expression of cytochrome P450 2E1.
ABSTRACT In this study, the possible potentiation of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was examined both in vitro and in vivo. Transfected HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 (E47 cells) and not expressing CYP2E1 (C34 cells) were used as an in vitro model, and mice drinking 2% acetone for 7 days to induce CYP2E1 were used as an in vivo model. Exposure of E47 cells to cisplatin caused a much greater loss of cell viability, more striking depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), and higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as compared with C34 cells. The prooxidant L-buthionine-[R,S]-sulfoximine (BSO), which depletes GSH, enhanced cisplatin-induced loss of cell viability, whereas the antioxidant glutathione ethyl ester, or the iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) protected against the cisplatin-induced loss of E47 cell viability. Diallyl sulfide (DAS), an inhibitor of CYP2E1, also protected against the cisplatin toxicity in the E47 cells. After being injected with cisplatin (ip, 45 mg/kg), mice drinking 2% acetone with increased CYP2E1 levels exhibited elevated levels of serum ALT and AST, liver caspase-3 activity and positive staining of TUNEL increased, and histopathology indicated the presence of necrotic foci in livers of acetone plus cisplatin-treated mice. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation as indicated by carbonyl formation, staining of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and iron were higher in the cisplatin plus acetone group, compared with cisplatin alone group. Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that elevated CYP2E1 enhances cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism may involve increased production of ROS and oxidative stress.
- SourceAvailable from: Mohamed Dkhil[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem, family: Meliaceae) is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. In this study we investigated the protective effect of methanolic neem leaves extract (MNLE; 500 mg/Kg bwt) on rats treated with cisplatin (CDDP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Adult rats were randomly divided into four groups. CDDP was given to rats by intraperitoneal injection, while MNLE was given by oral gavage for 5 days after the CDDP injection. The injury and oxidative stress caused by CDDP on the liver and the effect of MNLE were evaluated by measuring (a) histological changes, (b) tissue biochemical oxidant and antioxidant parameters, and (c) investigating apoptosis markers immunohistochemically and by real time PCR. After treatment with MNLE, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by cisplatin were improved. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were significantly decreased; the antioxidant system, namely, glutathione content, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly elevated. In conclusion, MNLE may have a potential role when combined with cisplatin in chemotherapy to alleviate cisplatin-induced damage and oxidative stress in liver.Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 12/2013; 2013:741817. DOI:10.1155/2013/741817 · 3.36 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of several human malignancies. Dose-related nephrotoxicity is the major adverse effect of cisplatin. The cellular and molecular mechanisms behind the cisplatin nephrotoxicity have not yet been completely understood. In this study, cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on renal proximal tubular (RPT) cells was evaluated. Our results showed that cytotoxic action of cisplatin on RPT cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, decline of mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in caspase-3 activity and lysosomal membrane leakiness before cell lysis ensued. All of the above mentioned cisplatin-induced oxidative stress cytotoxicity markers were significantly (p < 0.05) prevented by ROS scavengers, antioxidants, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore sealing agents, endocytosis inhibitors and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generators. Our results also showed that CYP2E1 involves in cisplatin oxidative stress cytotoxicity mechanism and intracellular nitric oxide enhancement protects the RPT cells against the cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. It seems that cisplatin nephrotoxicity is associated with mutual mitochondrial/lysosomal potentiation (cross-talk) of oxidative stress in RPT cells. This cross-talk finally results in release of lysosomal digestive proteases and phospholipases and mitochondrial MPT pore opening leading to cytochrome c release and activation of caspases cascade which signal apoptosis.Xenobiotica 11/2010; 40(11):763-71. DOI:10.3109/00498254.2010.512093 · 2.10 Impact Factor