In this study, the possible potentiation of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was examined both in vitro and in vivo. Transfected HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 (E47 cells) and not expressing CYP2E1 (C34 cells) were used as an in vitro model, and mice drinking 2% acetone for 7 days to induce CYP2E1 were used as an in vivo model. Exposure of E47 cells to cisplatin caused a much greater loss of cell viability, more striking depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), and higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as compared with C34 cells. The prooxidant L-buthionine-[R,S]-sulfoximine (BSO), which depletes GSH, enhanced cisplatin-induced loss of cell viability, whereas the antioxidant glutathione ethyl ester, or the iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) protected against the cisplatin-induced loss of E47 cell viability. Diallyl sulfide (DAS), an inhibitor of CYP2E1, also protected against the cisplatin toxicity in the E47 cells. After being injected with cisplatin (ip, 45 mg/kg), mice drinking 2% acetone with increased CYP2E1 levels exhibited elevated levels of serum ALT and AST, liver caspase-3 activity and positive staining of TUNEL increased, and histopathology indicated the presence of necrotic foci in livers of acetone plus cisplatin-treated mice. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation as indicated by carbonyl formation, staining of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and iron were higher in the cisplatin plus acetone group, compared with cisplatin alone group. Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that elevated CYP2E1 enhances cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism may involve increased production of ROS and oxidative stress.
"Unfortunately, therapeutic potential of these drugs is limited by its ototoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity (Church et al., 2004; Steeg and Theodorescu, 2008; Ciftci et al., 2011). Earlier, it has been reported that simultaneous administration of some antiemetic drugs exaggerated the hepatic toxicity induced by cisplatin (Lu and Cederbaum, 2006). Thus ameliorating chemotherapeutic drug(s) toxicity on non-target tissues is an important health-related goal. "
"Likewise, antioxidant capability has been reported to be greater in tumoral cells than in normal cells , but this effect is surpassed by the OS induced by AD. Short-lived cells or cells with higher renewal rates which are constantly being regenerated are the most affected, in addition to the fact that there are other undesirable effects associated with free radical generation, such as doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity (rapid heartbeat, heart failure), bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and cisplatin-induced ototoxicity [37–39]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of involuntary exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AD) was studied in a group of nurses in diverse hospitals in Mexico. The results were compared with a group of unexposed nurses. Anthropometric characteristics and the biochemical analysis were analyzed in both groups. Also, lipid peroxidation level (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated in blood of study participants as oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers. The group of occupationally exposed (OE) nurses consisted of 30 individuals ranging in age from 25 to 35 years. The control group included 30 nurses who were not occupationally exposed to the preparation and handling of AD and whose anthropometric and biochemical characteristics were similar to those of the OE group. All biomarkers evaluated were significantly increased (P < 0.5) in OE nurses compared to the control group. Results show that the assessment of OS biomarkers is advisable in order to evaluate exposure to AD in nurses.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 02/2014; 2014:858604. DOI:10.1155/2014/858604 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"The liver is highly susceptible to oxidative reactions as it is the main center of metabolism of most of the substances in the body, including exogenous substances like drugs. Usually nephrotoxicity is monitored during treatment with CDDP, but hepatotoxicity does not receive much attention . It has been reported that oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) decreased antioxidant defense systems, including antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic molecule glutathione (GSH), which are all major aspects of CDDP toxicity  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem, family: Meliaceae) is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. In this study we investigated the protective effect of methanolic neem leaves extract (MNLE; 500 mg/Kg bwt) on rats treated with cisplatin (CDDP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Adult rats were randomly divided into four groups. CDDP was given to rats by intraperitoneal injection, while MNLE was given by oral gavage for 5 days after the CDDP injection. The injury and oxidative stress caused by CDDP on the liver and the effect of MNLE were evaluated by measuring (a) histological changes, (b) tissue biochemical oxidant and antioxidant parameters, and (c) investigating apoptosis markers immunohistochemically and by real time PCR. After treatment with MNLE, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by cisplatin were improved. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were significantly decreased; the antioxidant system, namely, glutathione content, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly elevated. In conclusion, MNLE may have a potential role when combined with cisplatin in chemotherapy to alleviate cisplatin-induced damage and oxidative stress in liver.
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 12/2013; 2013:741817. DOI:10.1155/2013/741817 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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