From Jenner to modern smallpox vaccines

Jenner Museum Berkeley.
Occupational Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.03). 11/2005; 55(7):563. DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqi163
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Innate immunity in plants is manifested by a complex array of antimicrobial processes that includes induction of sets of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The availability of genomic data has made clear that each PR-protein family in a species is represented by several genes. Microarray data in public databases show that in most families, including the PR-5 family surveyed here, the expression of only few family members is defense associated. Genetic studies show that depending on their nutrient acquisition strategy, pathogens induce distinct but overlapping sets of PR genes, suggesting a connection to energy or resource allocation. PR-5 proteins have a clearly recognizable structure that is referred to as the thaumatin (THN) domain, which can be overlapped with mammalian Complement 1q-tumor necrosis factor (C1q-TNF) domains such as that of the mammalian hormone adiponectin. The occurrence of THN domain proteins is widespread. Similarities between THN domain proteins and mammalian C1q-TNF family proteins include their ligands and their subcellular locations. Osmotin (tobacco PR-5c) regulates energy balance signaling in mammalian cells by interaction with adiponectin receptors by a pathway that shares components with plant energy and stress signaling pathways. These data suggest additional roles for PR-5 proteins, as scaffolds and/or in signaling, particularly in regulating energy balance.
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    ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy is defined as the treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response, whereas preventive vaccination is intended to prevent the development of diseases in healthy subjects. Most successful prophylactic vaccines rely on the induction of high titers of neutralizing antibodies. It is generally thought that therapeutic vaccination requires induction of robust T-cell mediated immunity. The diverse array of potential or already in use immunotherapeutic and preventive agents all share the commonality of stimulating the immune system. Hence, measuring those vaccination-induced immune responses gives the earliest indication of vaccine take and its immune modulating effects.
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