Validity of a 12-item version of the CES-D used in the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth.
ABSTRACT This validation study assessed the degree of confidence that can be placed on inferences from depressive symptoms among adolescents, based on a 12-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D). This short version of the scale had been developed for application in the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth and we refer to it as the CES-D-12-NLSCY. The major data source for the present validation study was a 2002/2003 survey of 12,990 students in junior and senior high school in the Atlantic provinces of Canada. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for two different proxy gold standards yielded adequate areas under the curve (AUCs) of .84 and .80, allowing us to establish cut points for three categories of depressive symptoms in the general adolescent population: Minimal (CES-D-12-NLSCY total score 0 to 11), Somewhat Elevated (total score 12 to 20) and Very Elevated (total score 21 to 36). The CES-D-12-NLSCY was found to have acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach=s alpha .85). All but one of the 12 items of the CES-D-12-NLSCY were found to have acceptable discrimination ability. The prevalence of Minimal, Somewhat and Very Elevated depressive symptoms in the adolescent student population of the Atlantic provinces was estimated to be 72.3, 19.5 and 5.5 percent, respectively. A further 2.6 percent of students who responded to fewer than 11 items of the scale were classified as Indeterminate with regards to depressive symptom category. The major threat to the accuracy of the CES-D-12-NLSCY is its lack of inquiry about irritability, which is a key symptom of depression in youth.
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ABSTRACT: As the fields of resilience and positive psychology grow, there is increased focus on understanding the resources that facilitate wellbeing and positive development rather than factors preventing negative outcomes. As these developments occur, there is an increasing need for measures validated on high risk and marginalised populations of youth that assess the resources that potentiate wellbeing. Using data from a cross-sectional study of 1,477 youth (12-to-17 years old) in New Zealand, who were in either high risk or low risk environments, this paper presents the validation of questions developed by Hektner (Journal of Research in Rural Education, 11, 3–14, 1995) as a scale for use with youth, assessing their feelings about their own futures. A bi-dimensional construct composed of positive (three items) and negative (four items) emotions has been identified and confirmed through the use of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis that also tested factorial invariance across the two groups. Inter-item correlations ranged from 0.357 to 0.517 (negative emotions) and 0.295 to 0.455 (positive emotions). The two sub-scales show good internal reliability. Convergent and divergent validity testing of the measure is assessed using scales of risk (conduct problems and risk of depression), resilience, and satisfaction with life. Patterns in the responses of youth across the two groups are also compared.Child Indicators Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12187-014-9269-z. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about the natural course of depressive symptoms among youth with chronic illness during their transition from adolescence to young adulthood. A representative epidemiological sample of 2825 youth aged 10-11 years from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were followed until 24-25 years of age. Presence of chronic illness was measured using self-report and symptoms of depression were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate trajectories of depressive symptoms, adjusting for family environment and sociodemographic characteristics during the transition to young adulthood. Trajectories showed cubic change over time - increasing from early to mid-adolescence, decreasing to early young adulthood, increasing again to late young adulthood. Youth with chronic illness (n=753) had significantly less favorable trajectories and significantly higher proportions of clinically relevant depressive symptoms over time compared to their peers without chronic illness (n=2072). This study is limited by selective attrition, self-reported chronic illness and no assessment of illness severity, and mediating effects of family environment factors could not be examined. Findings support the diathesis-stress model; chronic illness negatively influenced depressive symptoms trajectories, such that youth with chronic illness had higher depression scores and less favorable trajectories over time. The health and school system are uniquely positioned to support youth with chronic illness navigate this developmental period in an effort to prevent declines in mental health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:594-601. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.014 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The contribution peer relationships make to positive adolescent development is well recognized. Accordingly, peer problem measures typically assess youth with few age-appropriate peers as having peer problems. Yet, youth facing high levels of personal and/or social adversity may reduce their association with antisocial peers as part of coping or risk mitigation strategies. While such strategies will result in higher scores on peer problem measures, they may also facilitate resilience and constitute a resource social workers can draw on in their work with youth. To test this proposition of peer adaptation as a risk mitigation strategy, mixed-methods data relating to two groups of youth who were exposed to different levels of adversity were compared on a standardized peer problem measure and a range of risk measures. Qualitative interviews extended this data and explored vulnerable youth perceptions of social withdrawal as a coping strategy. Results from the survey and qualitative data indicated that a subgroup of youth facing high levels of adversity restricted association with antisocial peers to reduce their behavioural risks. However, without adequate support from adults in both formal support systems and youths' social ecologies to compensate for the loss of peer friendships, this strategy did not reduce behavioural risk in the medium term. The social withdrawal strategy also appeared to heighten mental health concerns for these youth. The implications of this finding for the development of policy and practice with vulnerable youth are discussed.Child & Family Social Work 11/2014; DOI:10.1111/cfs.12188 · 0.93 Impact Factor