Validity of a 12-item version of the CES-D used in the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth

Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, 5790 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7, Canada.
Chronic diseases in Canada (Impact Factor: 1.6). 03/2005; 26(2-3):65-72.
Source: PubMed


This validation study assessed the degree of confidence that can be placed on inferences from depressive symptoms among adolescents, based on a 12-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D). This short version of the scale had been developed for application in the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth and we refer to it as the CES-D-12-NLSCY. The major data source for the present validation study was a 2002/2003 survey of 12,990 students in junior and senior high school in the Atlantic provinces of Canada. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for two different proxy gold standards yielded adequate areas under the curve (AUCs) of .84 and .80, allowing us to establish cut points for three categories of depressive symptoms in the general adolescent population: Minimal (CES-D-12-NLSCY total score 0 to 11), Somewhat Elevated (total score 12 to 20) and Very Elevated (total score 21 to 36). The CES-D-12-NLSCY was found to have acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach=s alpha .85). All but one of the 12 items of the CES-D-12-NLSCY were found to have acceptable discrimination ability. The prevalence of Minimal, Somewhat and Very Elevated depressive symptoms in the adolescent student population of the Atlantic provinces was estimated to be 72.3, 19.5 and 5.5 percent, respectively. A further 2.6 percent of students who responded to fewer than 11 items of the scale were classified as Indeterminate with regards to depressive symptom category. The major threat to the accuracy of the CES-D-12-NLSCY is its lack of inquiry about irritability, which is a key symptom of depression in youth.

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    • "Using the cut-off scores provided by Poulin et al. (2005), 10% of the children had mild to severe depressive symptoms, which is in line with the prevalence of depression in middle childhood (Costello, Mustillo, Erkanli, Keeler, & Angold, 2003). Poulin et al. (2005) found a Cronbach alpha of .85 in a sample of 12990 youngsters. In the current sample, Cronbach " s alpha was .69. "
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    ABSTRACT: The current study investigated whether biological sensitivity to emotional information moderates the link between attachment anxiety/avoidance and depressive symptoms. 60 children (9-12 years old) completed questionnaires on attachment and depressive symptoms. Skin conductance level was measured across three conditions: an emotionally neutral baseline condition, a negative mood-induction condition, and a positive mood-induction condition. Skin conductance level variability was calculated as the intra-individual variation across these conditions expressing the extent to which children are biologically sensitive to positive and negative emotional information. Results showed that skin conductance level variability moderated the association between depressive symptoms and attachment anxiety. Attachment anxiety was only linked with depressive symptoms when children showed more skin conductance level variability, suggesting that attachment anxiety is only a risk factor for children who are biologically sensitive to respond to emotional information. Skin conductance level variability did not moderate the association between depressive symptoms and attachment avoidance. Instead, a significant correlation was found between attachment avoidance and skin conductance level variability, which replicated previous research and might be caused by more avoidantly attached children‟s unsuccessful attempts to suppress emotional reactions.
    Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 11/2015; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    • "The reliability coefficient for this study was 0.70. A 12-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, (CES-D-12-NLSCY; α=0.85; Poulin et al. 2005) was included to measure risk levels for depression. Items such as " I had crying spells " , " I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing " , and " I felt like I was too tired to do things " are rated on a 4-point 1 Prioritised ethnicity was used in the study "
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    • "Participants were considered to have experienced a SLE if the PMK reported any of 13 specific events, as well as 'other traumatic events' (Table 2). Maternal depression was assessed at each time point using a 12-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D-12) (Poulin et al. 2005). Children were considered to have been exposed to maternal depression if "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine associations between trajectories of childhood neighbourhood social cohesion and adolescent mental health and behaviour. This study used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, a nationally representative sample of Canadian children. The sample included 5577 children aged 0-3 years in 1994-1995, prospectively followed until age 12-15 years. Parental perceived neighbourhood cohesion was assessed every 2 years. Latent growth class modelling was used to identify trajectories of neighbourhood cohesion. Mental health and behavioural outcomes were self-reported at age 12-15 years. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between neighbourhood cohesion trajectories and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. Five distinct trajectories were identified: 'stable low' (4.2%); 'moderate increasing' (9.1%); 'stable moderate' (68.5%); 'high falling' (8.9%); and 'stable high' (9.3%). Relative to those living in stable moderately cohesive neighbourhoods, those in stable low cohesive neighbourhoods were more likely to experience symptoms of anxiety/depression [odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.90] and engage in indirect aggression (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.07-2.45). Those with improvements in neighbourhood cohesion had significantly lower odds of hyperactivity (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.98) and indirect aggression (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.96). In contrast, those with a decline in neighbourhood cohesion had increased odds of hyperactivity (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.21-2.29). Those in highly cohesive neighbourhoods in early childhood were more likely to engage in prosocial behaviour ('high falling': OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.38-2.69; 'stable high': OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.35-2.63). These results suggest that neighbourhood cohesion in childhood may have time-sensitive effects on several domains of adolescent mental health and behaviour.
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