The neuroscience of addiction

National Institute on Drug Abuse, USA.
Nature Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 14.98). 12/2005; 8(11):1429-30. DOI: 10.1038/nn1105-1429
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t As Internet usage has become more prevalent among youth, so too has problematic Internet use. Despite the critical role of emotion regulation in the development of adolescents' behaviors and the role of par-enting interactions on their children's behaviors, little research has examined these links with reference to problematic and addictive Internet use for adolescents. The main goal of this study was to examine these links, based on a sample of 525 high school students (368 males; M = 15.33 years, SD = 0.47) from a predominantly middle and lower-middle socioeconomic community in Seoul, Korea. Results from structural equation modeling revealed that students' difficulties in emotion regulation was a mediating variable between students' perceptions of their parents' parenting behaviors and the students' Internet use. The findings substantiate the importance of conceptualizing addiction from a social/cognitive theo-retical framework and the notion that adolescence is the onset period for many addictive behaviors and so more proactive attention needs to be given to reducing these early negative behaviors. Based on these results, interventions designed to enhance adolescents' emotion regulatory abilities have the likelihood to mitigate problematic and even addictive Internet use among youth.
    Computers in Human Behavior 11/2013; 29(6):2682-2689. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2013.06.045 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Until very recently addiction-research was limited by existing tools and strategies that were inadequate for studying the inherent complexity at each of the different phenomenological levels. However, powerful new tools (e.g., optogenetics and designer drug receptors) and high throughput protocols are starting to give researchers the potential to systematically interrogate "all" genes, epigenetic marks, and neuronal circuits. These advances, combined with imaging technologies (both for preclinical and clinical studies) and a paradigm shift towards open access have spurred an unlimited growth of datasets transforming the way we investigate the neurobiology of substance use disorders (SUD) and the factors that modulate risk and resilience.
    Neuropharmacology 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.05.007 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drug craving critically depends on the function of the interoceptive insular cortex, and may be triggered by contextual cues. However, the role of the insula in the long-term memory linking context with drug craving remains unknown. Such a memory trace probably resides in some neocortical region, much like other declarative memories. Studies in humans and rats suggest that the insula may include such a region. Rats chronically implanted with bilateral injection cannulae into the high-order rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC) or the primary interoceptive posterior insula (pIC) were conditioned to prefer the initially aversive compartment of a 2-compartment place preference apparatus by repeatedly pairing it to amphetamine. We found a reversible but long-lasting loss (ca. 24 days) of amphetamine-conditioned place preference (CPP) and a decreased expression in the insula of zif268, a crucial protein in memory reconsolidation, when anisomycin (ANI) was microinjected into the RAIC immediately after the reactivation of the conditioned amphetamine/context memory. ANI infusion into the RAIC without reactivation did not change CPP, whereas ANI infusion into pIC plus caused a 15 days loss of CPP. We also found a 24 days loss of CPP when we reversibly inactivated pIC during extinction trials. We interpret these findings as evidence that the insular cortex, including the RAIC, is involved in a context/drug effect association. These results add a drug-related memory function to the insular cortex to the previously found role of the pIC in the perception of craving or malaise.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 04/2012; 37(9):2101-8. DOI:10.1038/npp.2012.59 · 7.83 Impact Factor