Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV in correctional populations: a review of epidemiology and prevention.
ABSTRACT The 2 million persons incarcerated in US prisons and jails are disproportionately affected by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV, with prevalences of infection two to ten times higher than in the general population. Infections are largely due to sex- and drug-related risk behaviors practised outside the correctional setting, although transmission of these infections has also been documented inside jails and prisons. Public health strategies to prevent morbidity and mortality from these infections should include hepatitis B vaccination, HCV and HIV testing and counseling, medical management of infected persons, and substance abuse treatment in incarcerated populations.
SourceAvailable from: Fabienne Hariga[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Materials and methods The cross-sectional and descriptive study targeted all prisoners incarcerated for more than 3 months. Using a probability proportional to size sampling method, a total of 490 prisoners (92.8 % male and 7.2% female) and 263 officers (76.3 % males and 23.7% females) from 9 correctional centres were interviewed. A structured questionnaire, adapted from the UNODC "Toolkit for HIV Situation and Needs Assessment in Prisons", was administered to participants.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is high among incarcerated persons in the United States. New, short-duration, high-efficacy therapies may expand treatment eligibility in this population.Annals of internal medicine 10/2014; 161(8):546-553. DOI:10.7326/M14-0602 · 16.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Hepatitis-related liver diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among people with HIV/AIDS taking combination antiretroviral therapy. We assessed the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on HIV outcomes in patients in China. Methods We did a nationwide retrospective observational cohort study with data from the China National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program from 2010–11. Patients older than 18 years starting standard antiretroviral therapy for HIV who had tested positive for HBV and HCV were followed up to Dec 31, 2012. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate survival, and logistic regression models to estimate virological failure, immunological response, and retention in care. Findings 33 861 patients with HIV met eligibility criteria. 2958 (8·7%) participants had HBV co-infection, 6149 (18·2%) had HCV co-infection, and 1114 (3·3%) had triple infection. All-cause mortality was higher in participants with triple infection (adjusted hazard ratio 1·90, 95% CI 1·53–2·37) and HCV co-infection (1·46, 1·25–1·70) than in those with HIV only, but not in those with HBV co-infection (1·06, 0·89–1·26). People with triple infection were also more likely to have virological failure (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·26, 95% CI 1·02–1·56) than were those with HIV only, whereas the difference was not significant for those with HBV co-infection (0·93, 0·80–1·10) or HCV co-infection (1·10, 0·97–1·26). No co-infection was significantly associated with a difference in CD4 cell count after 1 year of treatment. Loss to follow-up was more common among participants with triple infection (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·16–1·62) and HCV co-infection (1·30, 1·17–1·45), but not HBV co-infection (0·93, 0·82–1·05), than among those with HIV only. Interpretation Screening for viral hepatitis is important in individuals diagnosed as HIV positive. Effective management for viral hepatitis should be integrated into HIV treatment programmes. Long-term data are needed about the effect of hepatitis co-infection on HIV disease progression. Funding The National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention.The Lancet Infectious Diseases 10/2014; 14(11). DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70946-6 · 19.45 Impact Factor