Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV in correctional populations: a review of epidemiology and prevention.

Division of Viral Hepatitis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
AIDS (Impact Factor: 6.56). 11/2005; 19 Suppl 3:S41-6. DOI: 10.1097/01.aids.0000192069.95819.aa
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The 2 million persons incarcerated in US prisons and jails are disproportionately affected by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV, with prevalences of infection two to ten times higher than in the general population. Infections are largely due to sex- and drug-related risk behaviors practised outside the correctional setting, although transmission of these infections has also been documented inside jails and prisons. Public health strategies to prevent morbidity and mortality from these infections should include hepatitis B vaccination, HCV and HIV testing and counseling, medical management of infected persons, and substance abuse treatment in incarcerated populations.

Download full-text


Available from: Keith M Sabin, May 19, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    • "lence of 16.2% [14]. An HCV seroprevalence range of 16—41% was identified in an incarcerated population in the USA, and approximately 12—35% of the prisoners had chronic hepatitis C [15]. Our study reports a significant difference in HCV seroprevalence with respect to gender, with a higher prevalence in males. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prisons in Egypt do not currently screen for blood-borne viruses, and there are no statistics concerning the prevalence of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus among prisoners. This study was performed to detect the prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C, hepatitis B core and human immunodeficiency virus among Egyptian prisoners. The study was conducted in an Egyptian prison. The prisoners voluntarily completed a risk factor questionnaire and provided blood specimens for testing for antibodies against hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus core antigen and human immunodeficiency virus. Positive results were confirmed by the detecting HCV RNA via polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine the factors that were independently associated with positive HCV serology. Five hundred resident prisoners were screened. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies was 15.8% (79/500), and viremia was confirmed by PCR in 77.2% (61/79) of the antibody-positive prisoners. The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen was 9.8% (49/500), and 1.2% (6/500) of prisoners were dually infected with HBV and HCV. Antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus were not detected in any of the prisoners. The best predictor for hepatitis C and hepatitis B infection was a history of intravenous drug use (P<0.011 for HBV and P<0.001 for HCV), a period of >10 years spent in prison (P<0.052 for HBV and P<0.021 for HCV) and shared toiletries (P<0.059 for HBV and P<0.002 for HCV). Hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infections constitute an important public health problem in prisons. Public health strategies to prevent morbidity and mortality from these infections should include hepatitis B vaccination, HCV testing, counseling and medical management of infected prisoners.
    06/2013; 6(3):186-95. DOI:10.1016/j.jiph.2012.12.003
  • Source
    • "Given high rates of HIV/STI among drug users, and because substance misuse and addiction contribute to high rates of HIV infection among individuals in the criminal justice system (Macgowan et al., 2009; Weinbaum, Sabin, & Santibanez, 2005), drug courts may provide a window of opportunity to also deliver HIV /STI prevention programming. Individuals in the criminal justice system have disproportionately high rates of HIV and other STIs, with prevalence rates up to 10 times higher than the general population (Weinbaum et al., 2005). HIV, hepatitis, and other STIs in offenders are attributed to injection drug use and needle sharing, abuse of alcohol and other (noninjecting) drugs, and unprotected sex with multiple and high-risk partners (Conklin, Lincoln, & Tuthill, 2000; Hammett, Harmon, & Rhodes, 2002; Macgowan et al., 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Drug abusing offenders have high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). To date, the HIV/STI prevention needs of offenders in drug court programs have been ignored. This multi-method study employed interviews to assess drug court professionals' perceptions of the need for an HIV risk reduction intervention to be integrated into the services provided to drug court participants. Then, surveys were completed by 235 drug court participants to assess whether their sexual risk behaviors affirmed the need for such an intervention. The survey also assessed demographic characteristics, drug use prior to program entry, HIV knowledge, and condom attitudes. The relationship between duration in the drug court program and sexual risk behavior was also examined. Implications for the development and delivery of HIV risk reduction interventions within drug court programs are discussed.
    Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 10/2012; 51(7):453-473. DOI:10.1080/10509674.2012.702715
  • Source
    • "Blackwell Publishing Ltd and C (HCV) are also more common among IDUs compared to the general population (Allwright et al. 2000; Weinbaum et al. 2005; Butler et al. 2007). In 2006, more than 110 000 people were imprisoned in Indonesia, with around 30 000 convicted for drug-related offences, of whom 30–50% were IDUs (Directorate General of Correction 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence and behavioural correlates of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among Indonesian prisoners and to examine the impact of voluntary counselling and testing for all incoming prisoners on access to antiretroviral treatment (ART). In a non-anonymous survey in an Indonesian prison for drug-related offences, all incoming prisoners and symptomatic resident prisoners were counselled and offered testing for HIV, hepatitis B and C. Screening was performed in 679 incoming prisoners, of whom 639 (94.1%) agreed to be tested, revealing a seroprevalence of 7.2% (95% CI 5.2-9.2) for HIV, 5.8% (95% CI 3.9-7.6) for HBsAg and 18.6% (95% CI 15.5-21.6) for HCV. Of 57 resident prisoners tested, 29.8% were HIV-positive. HIV infection was strongly associated with injecting drug use (IDU; P < 0.001), but not with a history of unsafe sex. Screening of incoming prisoners was responsible for diagnosing and treating HIV in 73.0%, respectively, and 68.0% of HIV-positive individuals. HIV and HCV are highly prevalent among incoming Indonesian prisoners and almost entirely explained by IDU. Our study is the first to show that voluntary HIV counselling and testing during the intake process in prison may greatly improve access to ART in a developing country.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 10/2010; 15(12):1491-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02655.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
Show more