Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and HIV in Correctional Populations: A Review of Epidemiology and Prevention

Division of Viral Hepatitis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
AIDS (Impact Factor: 5.55). 11/2005; 19 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S41-6. DOI: 10.1097/01.aids.0000192069.95819.aa
Source: PubMed


The 2 million persons incarcerated in US prisons and jails are disproportionately affected by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV, with prevalences of infection two to ten times higher than in the general population. Infections are largely due to sex- and drug-related risk behaviors practised outside the correctional setting, although transmission of these infections has also been documented inside jails and prisons. Public health strategies to prevent morbidity and mortality from these infections should include hepatitis B vaccination, HCV and HIV testing and counseling, medical management of infected persons, and substance abuse treatment in incarcerated populations.

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Available from: Keith M Sabin, May 19, 2015
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    • "There is increasing recognition of the complex and chronic health needs of incarcerated populations. Despite their relative youth, prisoners experience impaired general health on a range of measures (Butler et al. 2007), and the prevalence of blood-borne viruses, particularly HIV and hepatitis C, is typically orders of magnitude higher than in the community (Butler et al. 2011; Dolan et al. 2007; Macalino et al. 2004; Weinbaum et al. 2005). The prevalence of mental illness is similarly elevated, particularly for post-traumatic stress disorder, psychotic disorders and substance use disorders (Butler et al. 2006; Fazel and Danesh 2002; Heffernan et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The world prison population is growing at a rate well in excess of general population growth, with more than 10 million adults currently in custody around the world and around 30 million moving through prison systems each year. There is increasing recognition of the complex and chronic health needs of incarcerated populations, but evidence-based responses to these needs remain elusive. Most prisoners return to the community after a relatively short period of time in custody, however few transitional interventions for prisoners have been subjected to rigorous evaluation. This paper details the process of developing a service brokerage intervention for ex-prisoners in Queensland, Australia, and describes the resultant intervention. The intervention could be adapted for use in other settings and is amenable to methodologically rigorous evaluation. The collaborative design and development process involved extensive consultation with ex-prisoners and key government, community and consumer stakeholders. The intervention evolved considerably during the process of consultation, as we came to better understand the needs and priorities of our target population, and of the community organisations that served them. We consider genuine consultation with consumers, in a safe and supportive environment, to be an integral part of intervention research in this area. Given the poor outcomes experienced by many people after release from prison, evidence-based interventions developed in the way described here are urgently required.
    03/2014; 2(4). DOI:10.1186/2194-7899-2-4
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    • "lence of 16.2% [14]. An HCV seroprevalence range of 16—41% was identified in an incarcerated population in the USA, and approximately 12—35% of the prisoners had chronic hepatitis C [15]. Our study reports a significant difference in HCV seroprevalence with respect to gender, with a higher prevalence in males. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prisons in Egypt do not currently screen for blood-borne viruses, and there are no statistics concerning the prevalence of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus among prisoners. This study was performed to detect the prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C, hepatitis B core and human immunodeficiency virus among Egyptian prisoners. The study was conducted in an Egyptian prison. The prisoners voluntarily completed a risk factor questionnaire and provided blood specimens for testing for antibodies against hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus core antigen and human immunodeficiency virus. Positive results were confirmed by the detecting HCV RNA via polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine the factors that were independently associated with positive HCV serology. Five hundred resident prisoners were screened. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies was 15.8% (79/500), and viremia was confirmed by PCR in 77.2% (61/79) of the antibody-positive prisoners. The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen was 9.8% (49/500), and 1.2% (6/500) of prisoners were dually infected with HBV and HCV. Antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus were not detected in any of the prisoners. The best predictor for hepatitis C and hepatitis B infection was a history of intravenous drug use (P<0.011 for HBV and P<0.001 for HCV), a period of >10 years spent in prison (P<0.052 for HBV and P<0.021 for HCV) and shared toiletries (P<0.059 for HBV and P<0.002 for HCV). Hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infections constitute an important public health problem in prisons. Public health strategies to prevent morbidity and mortality from these infections should include hepatitis B vaccination, HCV testing, counseling and medical management of infected prisoners.
    06/2013; 6(3):186-95. DOI:10.1016/j.jiph.2012.12.003
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    • "ss preventative health care and screening , has poorer health literacy and is unlikely to be targeted by community health promotion ef - forts . Further research is needed to determine how to bet - ter serve this group in relation to preventative health services , particularly in relation to infectious diseases . Consistent with previous studies ( Weinbaum et al . 2005 ; Van der Poorten et al . 2008 ) , our findings indicate a high prevalence of HCV among young , soon - to - be - released ex - prisoners . In Australia , imprisonment is an in - dependent risk factor for HCV transmission ( Hellard et al . 2004 ; Dolan et al . 2010 ) and most HCV infections occur within a short time of initiating injecti"

    01/2013; 1(1):1. DOI:10.1186/2194-7899-1-1
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