Article

The vitamin D epidemic and its health consequences.

Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Vitamin D Laboratory, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 4.23). 12/2005; 135(11):2739S-48S.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as an epidemic in the United States. The major source of vitamin D for both children and adults is from sensible sun exposure. In the absence of sun exposure 1000 IU of cholecalciferol is required daily for both children and adults. Vitamin D deficiency causes poor mineralization of the collagen matrix in young children's bones leading to growth retardation and bone deformities known as rickets. In adults, vitamin D deficiency induces secondary hyperparathyroidism, which causes a loss of matrix and minerals, thus increasing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. In addition, the poor mineralization of newly laid down bone matrix in adult bone results in the painful bone disease of osteomalacia. Vitamin D deficiency causes muscle weakness, increasing the risk of falling and fractures. Vitamin D deficiency also has other serious consequences on overall health and well-being. There is mounting scientific evidence that implicates vitamin D deficiency with an increased risk of type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, cardiovascular heart disease, and many common deadly cancers. Vigilance of one's vitamin D status by the yearly measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be part of an annual physical examination.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
87 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Die Erfolgsgeschichte des Vitamin D ist in den vergangenen 75 Jahren geschrieben worden. Sie begann mit der Erkenntnis, dass dieses Vitamin als antirachitischer Faktor fungiert und reicht bis in unsere Zeit hinein, in der es als Hormon mit Effekten im gesamten Körper eingestuft wurde. In der Evolution existiert diese Substanz aber schon über 750 Millionen Jahre und wird von Phytoplankton unter Sonnenbestrahlung synthetisiert.
    02/2013; 16(1):36-44. DOI:10.1007/s15002-013-0042-3
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D inadequacy is a global problem and it is one of the most common endocrine diseases world-wide. In this review article, we covered the important practical clinical issues for screening, prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in adults as well as during pregnancy and lactation.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study seasonal inter-individual and intra-individual variations in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and to explore parameters associated with 25(OH)D in a healthy Swedish adult population. 540 blood donors (60 % men; mean age 41 ± 13 years) and 75 thrombocyte donors (92 % men, aged 46 ± 11 years) were included. Serum was collected during 12 months and analyzed for 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH). The blood donors answered questionnaires concerning vitamin D supplements, smoking, physical activity, sunbed use and sun holidays. Repeated serum samples were collected from the thrombocyte donors to study the intra-individual variations in S-25(OH)D. S-25(OH)D varied greatly over the year correlating with the intensity of the UV-B irradiation (r S = 0.326; p < 0.001). During January-March, a S-25(OH)D level below the thresholds of 50 and 75 nmol/L was observed in 58 and 88 %, respectively, and during July-September in 11 and 50 % (p < 0.001). S-25(OH)D was negatively correlated with body mass index and S-iPTH, but was significantly higher in holiday makers in sunny destinations, sunbed users, non-smokers, and in the physically active. The intra-individual analyses showed a mean increase in S-25(OH)D by 8 nmol/L/month between April and August. Approximately 75 % had serum 25(OH)D values <75 nmol/L during 75 % of the year and 50 % had serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L during 50 % of the year. Serum 25(OH)D was strongly associated with parameters related to sun exposure, but only weakly with intake of vitamin D supplements.