Two doses of parenterally administered split influenza virus vaccine elicited high serum IgG concentrations which effectively limited viral shedding upon challenge in mice.
ABSTRACT We have previously found that whole influenza virus vaccine induced a more rapid and stronger humoral response, particularly after the first dose of vaccine, than split virus vaccine in mice. In this study, we have evaluated the protective efficacy of whole and split influenza virus vaccines in mice using a nonlethal upper respiratory tract challenge model. We have also investigated the immunological correlates associated with no or very little viral shedding after viral challenge. Vaccination resulted in reduced viral shedding and shortened the duration of infection by at least 2 days. After one dose of vaccine, whole virus vaccine generally resulted in less viral shedding than split virus vaccine. In contrast, two doses of split virus vaccine, particularly the highest vaccine strengths of 15 and 30 microg HA, most effectively limited viral replication and these mice had high concentrations of prechallenge influenza-specific serum IgG. The vaccine formulation influenced the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio, and this IgG subclass profile was maintained upon challenge to some extent, although it did not influence the level of viral shedding. The concentration of postvaccination serum IgG showed an inverse relationship with the level of viral shedding after viral challenge. Therefore, serum IgG is an important factor in limiting viral replication in the upper respiratory tract upon challenge of an antigenically similar virus.
Article: Induction of humoral and cellular immune responses by antigen-expressing immunostimulatory liposomes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recently we have shown that liposomes can be used as artificial microbes for the production and delivery of DNA-encoded antigens. These so-called antigen-expressing immunostimulatory liposomes (AnExILs) were superior in inducing antigen-specific antibodies compared to conventional liposomal protein or DNA vaccines when tested in mice after i.m. immunization. In this study, we investigated the capacity of AnExILs to induce T-cell responses. By using a plasmid vector encoding a model antigen under control of both the prokaryotic T7 and the eukaryotic CMV promoter we hypothesized that antigen production could lead to CTL activation via two distinct routes: i. production of antigens inside the AnExILs with subsequent cross-presentation after processing by APCs and ii. endogenous production of antigens after AnExIL-mediated transfection of the pDNA. Although we were not able to demonstrate transfection-mediated expression of luc-NP in mice, i.m. injection of AnExILs producing luc-NP resulted in T-cell responses against the encoded NP epitope, as determined by tetramer staining. T-cell responses were comparable to the responses obtained after i.m. injection of naked pDNA. In order to find out whether CTL activation was caused by cross-presentation of the exogenous antigens produced inside AnExILs or by endogenous antigen production from transfection with the same pDNA source a second study was initiated in which the contribution of each of these effects could be separately determined. These results demonstrate that the observed T-cell responses were not exclusively caused by cross-presentation of the AnExIL-produced antigens alone, but were rather a combination of dose-dependent antigen cross-presentation and low levels of endogenous antigen production.Journal of Controlled Release 08/2012; · 5.73 Impact Factor
Article: Preservation of the immunogenicity of dry-powder influenza H5N1 whole inactivated virus vaccine at elevated storage temperatures.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Stockpiling of pre-pandemic influenza vaccines guarantees immediate vaccine availability to counteract an emerging pandemic. Generally, influenza vaccines need to be stored and handled refrigerated to prevent thermal degradation of the antigenic component. Requirement of a cold-chain, however, complicates stockpiling and the logistics of vaccine distribution. We, therefore, investigated the effect of elevated storage temperatures on the immunogenicity of a pre-pandemic influenza A H5N1 whole inactivated virus vaccine. Either suspended in liquid or kept as a freeze-dried powder, vaccines could be stored for 1 year at ambient temperature (20 degrees C) with minimal loss of immunogenicity in mice. Elevation of the storage temperature to 40 degrees C, however, resulted in a significant loss of immunogenic potency within 3 months if vaccines were stored in liquid suspension. In sharp contrast, freeze-dried powder formulations were stable at 40 degrees C for at least 3 months. The presence of inulin or trehalose sugar excipients during freeze-drying of the vaccine proved to be critical to maintain its immunogenic potency during storage, and to preserve the characteristic Th1-type response to whole inactivated virus vaccine. These results indicate that whole inactivated virus vaccines may be stored and handled at room temperature in moderate climate zones for over a year with minimal decline and, if converted to dry-powder, even in hot climate zones for at least 3 months. The increased stability of dry-powder vaccine at 40 degrees C may also point to an extended shelf-life when stored at 4 degrees C. Use of the more stable dry-powder formulation could simplify stockpiling and thereby facilitating successful pandemic intervention.The AAPS Journal 03/2010; 12(2):215-22. · 5.09 Impact Factor
Article: Antigen-expressing immunostimulatory liposomes as a genetically programmable synthetic vaccine.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Liposomes are versatile (sub)micron-sized membrane vesicles that can be used for a variety of applications, including drug delivery and in vivo imaging but they also represent excellent models for artificial membranes or cells. Several studies have demonstrated that in vitro transcription and translation can take place inside liposomes to obtain compartmentalized production of functional proteins within the liposomes (Kita et al. in Chembiochem 9(15):2403-2410, 2008; Moritani et al.in FEBS J, 2010; Kuruma et al. in Methods Mol Biol 607:161-171, 2010; Murtas et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 363(1):12-17, 2007; Sunami et al. in Anal Biochem 357(1):128-136, 2006; Ishikawa et al. in FEBS Lett 576(3):387-390, 2004; Oberholzer et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 261(2):238-241, 1999). Such a minimal artificial cell-based model is ideal for synthetic biology based applications. In this study, we propose the use of liposomes as artificial microbes for vaccination. These artificial microbes can be genetically programmed to produce specific antigens at will. To show proof-of-concept for this artificial cell-based platform, a bacterial in vitro transcription and translation system together with a gene construct encoding the model antigen β-galactosidase were entrapped inside multilamellar liposomes. Vaccination studies in mice showed that such antigen-expressing immunostimulatory liposomes (AnExILs) elicited higher specific humoral immune responses against the produced antigen (β-galactosidase) than control vaccines (i.e. AnExILs without genetic input, liposomal β-galactosidase or pDNA encoding β-galactosidase). In conclusion, AnExILs present a new platform for DNA-based vaccines which combines antigen production, adjuvanticity and delivery in one system and which offer several advantages over existing vaccine formulations.Systems and Synthetic Biology 06/2011; 5(1-2):21-31.