HLA-C and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in idiopathic bronchiectasis
ABSTRACT In idiopathic bronchiectasis, lung inflammation and chronic bacterial infection lead to progressive lung damage. A possible role for natural killer (NK) cells is suggested by the observation that familial bronchiectasis occurs in a rare group of individuals with impaired HLA class I expression and consequent NK cell dysfunction.
Because the HLA-C locus and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are of key importance for NK cell recognition, we analyzed HLA-C/KIR combinations by genotyping patients with idiopathic bronchiectasis.
Genomic DNA from 96 individuals with idiopathic bronchiectasis and 101 control subjects was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. High-resolution HLA-C genotyping was performed in addition to KIR analysis.
HLA-Cw*03 alleles and, in particular, HLA-C group 1 homozygosity are associated with the presence of bronchiectasis. Analysis of the relationship between HLA-C and KIR genes suggests a shift to activatory NK cell function.
This is the first demonstration of genetic susceptibility in idiopathic bronchiectasis. The association with HLA-C group 1 homozygosity, and the interplay between HLA-C and KIR genes, argue for a role for NK cells in the progressive lung damage seen in this disease. This will require further investigation using functional studies.
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ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the analysis of nonlinear reachability and fault tolerant properties of multiactuator nonlinear systems. In this case, the process is a steam generator process containing a set of actuators. After occurrence of one or several actuator faults detected and isolated by Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) approaches, a quantitative analysis of the faulty system properties helps us to determine whether the faulty system can go on operating or not. Nonlinear reachability analysis that are necessary to keep the system under control.
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ABSTRACT: Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are molecules expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, which play an important role in innate immunity. KIR recognition of major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I allotypes represents one component of the complex interactions between NK cells and their targets in determining NK cell reactivity. KIRs are encoded by a gene cluster at human chromosome 19q13.4. Despite their high degree of sequence identity, KIR genes encode proteins that have diverse recognition patterns (specific HLA class I allotypes) and confer opposing signals (activating or inhibitory) to the NK cell. The KIR gene cluster is highly polymorphic, with individual genes exhibiting allelic variability and individual haplotypes differing in gene content. The polymorphism of the KIR locus parallels that of the MHC, facilitating the adaptation of the immune system to a dynamic, challenging environment. This variation is associated with a growing number of human diseases, which is likely to extend to levels observed for the HLA loci. Here we review current progress in understanding KIR biology and genetics.Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 02/2006; 7:277-300. DOI:10.1146/annurev.genom.7.080505.115726 · 9.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Idiopathic bronchiectasis is a disease of chronic, bacterial lung infection, unresolving inflammation and progressive lung damage. Bronchiectasis can be associated with autoimmune diseases including ulcerative colitis. Defects of both innate and adaptive immunity have been proposed. The airway inflammation is characterized by interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression and infiltration by neutrophils and T cells. Here we investigated two candidate gene polymorphisms that may contribute to disease susceptibility: a CXCR-1 (+2607 G/C) gene polymorphism that is implicated in IL-8 binding and neutrophil trafficking as well as the interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) (+874 T/A) polymorphism which is linked to levels of IFNgamma production. These polymorphisms were distributed similarly in the idiopathic bronchiectasis group and controls, suggesting that these two candidate gene polymorphisms are not associated with disease susceptibility.Tissue Antigens 11/2006; 68(4):325-30. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00670.x · 2.35 Impact Factor