Transmembrane domain-induced oligomerization is crucial for the functions of syndecan-2 and syndecan-4.
ABSTRACT The syndecans are known to form homologous oligomers that may be important for their functions. We have therefore determined the role of oligomerization of syndecan-2 and syndecan-4. A series of glutathione S-transferase-syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 chimeric proteins showed that all syndecan constructs containing the transmembrane domain formed SDS-resistant dimers, but not those lacking it. SDS-resistant dimer formation was hardly seen in the syndecan chimeras where each transmembrane domain was substituted with that of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). Increased MAPK activity was detected in HEK293T cells transfected with syndecan/PDGFR chimeras in a syndecan transmembrane domain-dependent fashion. The chimera-induced MAPK activation was independent of both ligand and extracellular domain, implying that the transmembrane domain is sufficient to induce dimerization/oligomerization in vivo. Furthermore, the syndecan chimeras were defective in syndecan-4-mediated focal adhesion formation and protein kinase Calpha activation or in syndecan-2-mediated cell migration. Taken together, these data suggest that the transmembrane domains are sufficient for inducing dimerization and that transmembrane domain-induced oligomerization is crucial for syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 functions.
Article: Single-spanning transmembrane domains in cell growth and cell-cell interactions: More than meets the eye?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As a whole, integral membrane proteins represent about one third of sequenced genomes, and more than 50% of currently available drugs target membrane proteins, often cell surface receptors. Some membrane protein classes, with a defined number of transmembrane (TM) helices, are receiving much attention because of their great functional and pharmacological importance, such as G protein-coupled receptors possessing 7 TM segments. Although they represent roughly half of all membrane proteins, bitopic proteins (with only 1 TM helix) have so far been less well characterized. Though they include many essential families of receptors, such as adhesion molecules and receptor tyrosine kinases, many of which are excellent targets for biopharmaceuticals (peptides, antibodies, et al.). A growing body of evidence suggests a major role for interactions between TM domains of these receptors in signaling, through homo and heteromeric associations, conformational changes, assembly of signaling platforms, etc. Significantly, mutations within single domains are frequent in human disease, such as cancer or developmental disorders. This review attempts to give an overview of current knowledge about these interactions, from structural data to therapeutic perspectives, focusing on bitopic proteins involved in cell signaling.Cell adhesion & migration 04/2010; 4(2):313-24. · 1.82 Impact Factor