Greater adenosine A(2A) receptor densities in cardiac and skeletal muscle in endurance-trained men: a [11C]TMSX PET study.
ABSTRACT We examined the densities of adenosine A(2A) receptors in cardiac and skeletal muscles between untrained and endurance-trained subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and [7-methyl-11C]-(E)-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine ([11C]TMSX), a newly developed radioligand for mapping adenosine A(2A) receptors. Five untrained and five endurance-trained subjects participated in this study. The density of adenosine A(2A) receptors was evaluated as the distribution volume of [11C]TMSX in cardiac and triceps brachii muscles in the resting state using PET. The distribution volume of [11C]TMSX in the myocardium was significantly greater than in the triceps brachii muscle in both groups. Further, distribution volumes [11C]TMSX in the trained subjects were significantly grater than those in untrained subjects (myocardium, 3.6+/-0.3 vs. 3.1+/-0.4 ml g(-1); triceps brachii muscle, 1.7+/-0.3 vs. 1.2+/-0.2 ml g(-1), respectively). These results indicate that the densities of adenosine A(2A) receptors in the cardiac and skeletal muscles are greater in the endurance-trained men than in the untrained men.
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ABSTRACT: Adenosine is the most widely used vasodilator stress agent for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion studies. With the standard dose of 140 mcg/kg/min some patients fail to demonstrate characteristic haemodynamic changes: a significant increase in heart rate (HR) and mild decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP). Whether an increase in the rate of adenosine infusion would improve peripheral and, likely, coronary vasodilatation in those patients is unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the tolerance and safety of a high-dose adenosine protocol in patients with inadequate haemodynamic response to the standard adenosine protocol when undergoing CMR perfusion imaging. 98 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CMR perfusion imaging at 1.5 Tesla. Subjects were screened for contraindications to adenosine, and an electrocardiogram was performed prior to the scan. All patients initially received the standard adenosine protocol (140 mcg/kg/min for at least 3 minutes). If the haemodynamic response was inadequate (HR increase < 10 bpm or SBP decrease < 10 mmHg) then the infusion rate was increased up to a maximum of 210 mcg/kg/min (maximal infusion duration 7 minutes). All patients successfully completed the CMR scan. Of a total of 98 patients, 18 (18%) did not demonstrate evidence of a significant increase in HR or decrease in SBP under the standard adenosine infusion rate. Following the increase in the rate of infusion, 16 out of those 18 patients showed an adequate haemodynamic response. One patient of the standard infusion group and two patients of the high-dose group developed transient advanced AV block. Significantly more patients complained of chest pain in the high-dose group (61% vs. 29%, p = 0.009). On multivariate analysis, age > 65 years and ejection fraction < 57% were the only independent predictors of blunted haemodynamic responsiveness to adenosine. A substantial number of patients do not show adequate peripheral haemodynamic response to standard-dose adenosine stress during perfusion CMR imaging. Age and reduced ejection fraction are predictors of inadequate response to standard dose adenosine. A high-dose adenosine protocol (up to 210 mcg/kg/min) is well tolerated and results in adequate haemodynamic response in nearly all patients.Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 11/2010; 12:66. · 4.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Summary Understanding cardiac receptor physiology is crucial to the study of cardiovascular diseases. The availability of noninvasive imaging technology in studying cardiac receptors has greatly expanded our knowledge of their roles in the pathogenesis of several cardiac disorders such as ischemia and heart failure. The dynamic nature of imaging “physiology” rather than anatomy often requires precise imaging protocols and complex mathematical modeling. The use of radiolabeled ligands adds the additional complications of radiation safety and radiopharmaceutical synthesis. Successful utilization of this technology must involve collaborative efforts of cardiologists, radiologists, radiochemists, physicists, mathematicians, technologists, and of course, referring physicians. Cardiac receptor imaging offers, in return, not only tremendous opportunities for scientific discovery in physiology and pathophysiology, but also opportunities for clinical decision making. Imaging is a powerful tool for following the patients’ responses to therapy and for predicting prognosis and dictating treatment. Much more effort is still needed to develop radiopharmaceutical agents for the various receptors and parts of the receptor systems that cannot be imaged currently. More research needs to be done to expand this technology for wider clinical application.Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 01/2005; 12(6):714-30. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Advances in radiotracer chemistry have resulted in the development of novel molecular imaging probes for adenosine receptors (ARs). With the availability of these molecules, the function of ARs in human pathophysiology as well as the safety and efficacy of approaches to the different AR targets can now be determined. Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field of research that allows the identification of molecular targets and functional processes in vivo. It is therefore gaining increasing interest as a tool in drug development because it permits the process of evaluating promising therapeutic targets to be stratified. Further, molecular imaging has the potential to evolve into a useful diagnostic tool, particularly for neurological and psychiatric disorders. This chapter focuses on currently available AR ligands that are suitable for molecular neuroimaging and describes first applications in healthy subjects and patients using positron emission tomography (PET).Handbook of experimental pharmacology 02/2009;