We examined the densities of adenosine A(2A) receptors in cardiac and skeletal muscles between untrained and endurance-trained subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and [7-methyl-11C]-(E)-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine ([11C]TMSX), a newly developed radioligand for mapping adenosine A(2A) receptors. Five untrained and five endurance-trained subjects participated in this study. The density of adenosine A(2A) receptors was evaluated as the distribution volume of [11C]TMSX in cardiac and triceps brachii muscles in the resting state using PET. The distribution volume of [11C]TMSX in the myocardium was significantly greater than in the triceps brachii muscle in both groups. Further, distribution volumes [11C]TMSX in the trained subjects were significantly grater than those in untrained subjects (myocardium, 3.6+/-0.3 vs. 3.1+/-0.4 ml g(-1); triceps brachii muscle, 1.7+/-0.3 vs. 1.2+/-0.2 ml g(-1), respectively). These results indicate that the densities of adenosine A(2A) receptors in the cardiac and skeletal muscles are greater in the endurance-trained men than in the untrained men.
"However, no study has sought to determine whether this is also the case in humans in vivo. Interestingly, the density of A 2A Rs in the human heart has been found to be higher in endurance-trained triathletes (Mizuno et al. 2005). However, it is not known whether A 2A R density and MBF are interrelated in humans, especially during adenosine-induced hyperaemia, and whether increased LV mass in athletes has an effect on A 2A R density. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous human studies have shown divergent results concerning the effects of exercise training on myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest or during adenosine-induced hyperaemia in humans. We studied whether these responses are related to alterations in adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) density in the left-ventricular (LV) myocardium, size and work output of the athlete's heart, or to fitness level. MBF at baseline and during intravenous adenosine infusion, and A2AR density at baseline were measured using positron emission tomography, and by a novel A2AR tracer in 10 healthy male endurance athletes (ET) and 10 healthy untrained (UT) men. Structural LV parameters were measured with echocardiography. LV mass index was 71% higher in ET than UT (193 ± 18 g m−2versus 114 ± 13 g m−2, respectively). MBF per gram of tissue was significantly lower in the ET than UT at baseline, but this was only partly explained by reduced LV work load since MBF corrected for LV work was higher in ET than UT, as well as total MBF. The MBF during adenosine-induced hyperaemia was reduced in ET compared to UT, and the fitter the athlete was, the lower was adenosine-induced MBF. A2AR density was not different between the groups and was not coupled to resting or adenosine-mediated MBF. The novel findings of the present study show that the adaptations in the heart of highly trained endurance athletes lead to relative myocardial ‘overperfusion’ at rest. On the other hand hyperaemic perfusion is reduced, but is not explained by A2AR density.
The Journal of Physiology 10/2008; 586(21):5193 - 5202. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2008.158113 · 5.04 Impact Factor
"It is suggested that the SAS induced muscle activation, which increased the walk ratio. FDG PET gives more informations of the physiological status of muscles during exercise than conventional techniques such as the EMG and expired gas methods because it reveals the imaging of glucose metabolism –, hemodynamics , and the adenosine receptor . EMG can not provides whole muscles imaging information, and it is difficult to use to record the activity of deep muscles such as the iliacus. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for quantitative evaluation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle during walking. Ten young males underwent FDG PET twice during walks, which were done with or without an automated stride assistance system (SAS). Walk ratios were significantly increased by the SAS in seven subjects. Regional glucose metabolism in muscles between the crista iliaca and the planta was clearly visualized in all ten subjects. Glucose utilization increased significantly in the tibialis posterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles of the seven subjects in whom walk ratios were increased by the SAS. FDG PET is useful for analysis of muscle activity during exercise and rehabilitation.
IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 10/2007; 15(3):442-8. DOI:10.1109/TNSRE.2007.903978 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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