Raw vegetable food containing high cyclo (his-pro) improved insulin sensitivity and body weight control.
ABSTRACT Cyclo (his-pro), controlled-energy diet, soy protein hydrolysate (SPH), and raw vegetable food (RVF) are known to improve insulin sensitivity and body weight (BW) control. Enhancement of high cyclo (his-pro) content in SPH (HCS) was performed by refluxing SPH with 1 N KH(2)CO(3) dissolved in 70% ethanol for 2 weeks at room temperature. Using this material, we examined the effects of HCS plus RVF on glucose metabolism and BW control in genetically diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (G-K) and insulin-resistant aged overweight Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. Thirty 7-week-old G-K rats and 18 16- to 18-month-old S-D rats were divided into 3 groups and treated with normal chow (NC), RVF diet, or HCS diet for 8 weeks. Raw vegetable food diet was made of 1:3 RVF and 2:3 NC; HCS diet was made of 1:27 portion HCS, 8:27 RVF, and 2:3 NC. Oral glucose tolerance significantly improved in both RVF- (P<.01) and HCS-treated (P<.001) G-K rats and worsened in NC-fed rats compared with the baseline values. Similarly, oral glucose tolerance also improved in aged overweight S-D rats when treated with RVF (P<.05) and with HCS (P<.01), compared with the baseline values. Although HCS diet treatment very significantly lowered fed plasma insulin levels compared with NC diet treatment in G-K rats (P<.01), RVF diet treatment alone did not decrease plasma insulin levels. In contrast, there was no change of insulin levels in overweight aged S-D rats after either RVF or HCS diet treatment. Postfeeding glucose levels in G-K rats fed RVF or HCS significantly fell, compared with the rats fed NC (P<.05). Interestingly, fasting blood glucose levels in RVF- or HCS-fed rats were very significantly lower than in NC-fed rats (P<.001). There was no change of blood glucose levels in S-D rats due to treatments with different diet. In G-K rats, food intake did not decrease during the first 3 weeks but fell very significantly from the fifth to eighth weeks with RVF (P<.01) and HCS (P<.001) treatments in G-K rats. However, food intake reduction in aged S-D rats was shown only for the HCS-treated rat group (P<.05). Water intake slightly decreased in G-K rats with either RVF or HCS treatment (P<.05) but very significantly decreased in S-D rats with HCS treatment (P<.01). Body weight gain in young G-K rats and BW in aged S-D rats significantly decreased only when rats were treated with HCS diet (P<.05). These data suggest that regular consumption of HCS diet helps to control blood glucose metabolism in diabetic G-K rats and BW control in aged obese S-D rats.
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ABSTRACT: A method for coating rice with a novel substance, SHC [soybean hydrolysate with Cyclo Histidine-Proline (CHP)], was developed to produce functional rice for food production. The dip coating and spray coating method was tested to reduce the loss of functionality during the manufacturing of enriched rice. The dip coating method showed a very low absorption rate () of the functional substance compared to control (), while the spray-coating method with protective coating materials [a methyl cellulose solution (l%, w/v) containing 5% (w/v) of the SHC] showed relatively adequate absorption characteristics. A light yellowish stain was observed in the rice samples processed by the spray-coating method (b value; surface1 0.69, flour 4.91) compared to raw rice (b value; surface 9.67, flour 4.86). The microscopic appearance of whole kernels and longitudinal sections revealed that cracks formed in all rice samples, regardless of the coating method. In conclusion, spray coating is a potential method for producing SHC-fortified rice with excellent physical characteristics.Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 03/2013; 42(3). DOI:10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.3.415
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of yeast hydrolysate on the abdominal fat in obese humans. We observed the effects of yeast hydrolysate that had a molecular weight below 10 kDa on the anti-abdominal fat accumulation in obese men and women ages 20 to 50 y for 10 wk. The abdominal fat mass was assessed by computed tomographic scans. By the sixth week, the reductions in energy intake in the yeast group (yeast hydrolysate 1 g/d) were significantly greater than those in the control group (placebo 1 g/d) (P < 0.05). The body weight and body mass index (BMI) were significantly reduced by week 10 compared with baseline in the yeast group, and these differences were significantly greater than those in the control group: body weight 0.83 kg versus -2.60 k g (P < 0.001), BMI 0.29 kg/m(2) versus -0.90 kg/m(2) (P < 0.001). Despite the increased loss of body weight in the yeast group, lean body mass did not significantly differ between the two groups. Body fat mass in the control group did not significantly change between baseline and week 10. However, the yeast group lost a significant amount of body fat mass after 10 wk of treatment (P < 0.01). The differences in abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference between the two groups were significant after 10 wk of treatment (P < 0.001). The total abdominal fat area in the yeast group was significantly lower than in the control group after 10 wk of treatment (-7.06 cm(2) versus -17.34 cm(2); P < 0.01). Yeast hydrolysate can reduce body weight and the accumulation of abdominal fat without an adverse effect on lean body mass in obese adults, regardless of sex, via the reduction of energy intake.Nutrition 01/2014; 30(1):25-32. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2013.02.009 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cyclo(His-Pro) is an endogenous cyclic dipeptide structurally related to tyreotropin-releasing hormone that was originally discovered in brain. In the central nervous system it has been described to exert multiple biological activities, which seem to be related to a presynaptic dopaminergic mechanism and include among the others a leptin-like function. It can be found in several body fluids and in the gastrointestinal tract where it has been suggested to act as a gut peptide with influence on the entero-insular axis. The oral administration of cyclo(His-Pro) and zinc was described to improve with a synergistic mechanism the glycaemic control in diabetes. The most intriguing function of this cyclic dipeptide is related with its neuroprotective role that was first reported in traumatic injuries of the spinal cord, and then confirmed in other models of experimental injuries of the nervous system. The mechanism that lies behind the neuroprotective activity of cyclo(His-Pro) remain poorly understood. Recent in vitro studies on rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells have shown that it is a protective factor against stress stimuli and there is early pre-clinical evidence strongly suggesting that it enhances the expression of small heat shock proteins and antioxidant protection at the cellular level. Future research is underway to better characterize the possible use of this cyclic dipeptide in the therapy of neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders.Amino Acids 08/2008; 35(2):283-9. DOI:10.1007/s00726-007-0629-6 · 3.65 Impact Factor