Preparation and characterization of melittin-loaded poly (DL-lactic acid) or poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres made by the double emulsion method

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, No. 103, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, China.
Journal of Controlled Release (Impact Factor: 7.26). 11/2005; 107(2):310-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2005.07.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The water soluble peptide, melittin, isolated from bee venom and composed of twenty-six amino acids, was encapsulated in poly (DL-lactic acid, PLA) and poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) microspheres prepared by a multiple emulsion [(W1/O)W2] solvent evaporation method. The aim of this work was to develop a controlled release injection that would deliver the melittin over a period of about one month. The influence of various preparation parameters, such as the type of polymer, its concentration, stabilizer PVA concentration, volume of internal water phase and level of drug loading on the characteristics of the microspheres and drug release was investigated. It was found that the microspheres of about 5 microm in size can be produced in high encapsulation (up to 90%), and the melittin content in the microspheres was up to 10% (w/w). The drug release profiles in vitro exhibited a significant burst release, followed by a lag phase of little or no release and then a phase of constant melittin release. The type of polymer used was a critical factor in controlling the release of melittin from the microspheres. In this study, the rate of peptide release from the microspheres correlated well with the rate of polymer degradation. Moreover, melittin was released completely during the study period of 30 days, which agreed well with the polymer degradation rate.

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Available from: Mingshi Yang, Jul 25, 2015
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    • "One of the reasons for this phenomenon may be that the more of PVA molecules are absorbed on the surfaces between organic phase and aqueous phase, the lower is the interfacial tension between the oil and aqueous phase (Ito et al. 2007). Another reason may be the increase in viscosity of the outer aqueous phase with increasing concentration of PVA, which prevents the emulsion droplets from coalescence (Cui et al. 2005). Both of these resulted in smaller and more stable emulsion droplets. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lappaconitine instead of its hydrobromide salts has been encapsulated in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) microspheres by the simple o/w emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The effects of several variables including emulsifier (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA) concentration, stirring speed, PLGA concentration and drug/polymer mass ratios on quality of microspheres have been investigated. The particle size and size distribution can be controlled by PVA concentration, stirring speed and PLGA concentration. The entrapment efficiency and the burst release of lappaconitine from drug-loaded microspheres were dominantly affected by the drug/polymer mass ratio and PVA concentration. The best parameters of formulation were 1.5% PVA, the PLGA concentration of 50 g/L, and the stirring speed of 800 rpm and drug/polymer of 1:5. The optimized formulation has a mean particle size of 19.3 +/- 0.93 microm, mean entrapment efficiency of 70.77 +/- 3.23% and mean drug loading of 11.45 +/- 0.47%. Based on the optimized parameters of formulation, the effects of oil/aqueous solubility partition ratio of drug on entrapment efficiency of drug-loaded microspheres prepared by o/w emulsion solvent evaporation were further studied. A good linear relation existed between the partition ratio and entrapment efficiency. The optimized microspheres were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, DSC and XRD. SEM shows spherical and smooth surface and uniform size distribution. The results of DSC, FT-IR study reveal no interaction between drug and polymer. The results of the XRD study indicate lappaconitine trapped in microsphere exists in form of an amorphous or disordered crystalline status in polymer matrix. The in vitro release models were evaluated with two different groups of drug-loaded microspheres including microspheres washed with distilled water and 0.01N HCL, respectively. The drug release profile of lappaconitine-loaded microspheres washed with distilled water agreed with zero order equation and that of the latter better agreed with first order equation.
    Pharmazie 09/2011; 66(9):654-61. DOI:10.1691/ph.2011.1042 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    • "However, an important drawback of organic solvents is their effect on the physicochemical properties of the drug, as well as the potential risk to human health owing to their toxicity and undesirable effects (Witschi and Doelker, 1997). In general, sensitive drugs need to be protected during formulation against chemical attack, and require gentle manufacturing processes (Cui et al., 2005). Biodegradable porous scaffolds have been extensively used in medicine as temporary templates for tissues regeneration, and have recently been subject of study for the pharmaceutical industry because they have been shown to be excellent drug devices due to the high porosity and interconnectivity throughout the system (Sato et al., 1988; Mikos et al., 1993, 1994; Kim et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to propose a drug delivery system based on a biodegradable porous membrane, whose surface is covered by a nanoparticle film, thus achieving a controlled drug release rate. Furthermore, due to the fact that the assembly of the system is performed in aqueous medium, contact with organic solvents is avoided. The method is performed in two steps: (i) preparation of biodegradable porous membranes (by a solvent casting and particulate leaching technique) and biodegradable nanoparticles (by the emulsification-diffusion method), extensively eliminating the solvent in both of them; (ii) infiltration into membranes of an aqueous solution of a model drug (carbamazepine) and a nanoparticle dispersion. In both cases, poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA 50:50) was used as a biodegradable polymer. Carbamazepine adsorbed onto biodegradable porous membranes shows an immediate release behavior (95% released in <15 min). Infiltration of different amounts of nanoparticles (50, 100, 400 and 600 mg of nanoparticles/0.625 g of membrane) into biodegradable porous membranes shows a Fickian diffusion according to Peppas model, and fits Higuchi's model. This behavior was attributed to the diffusional barrier constituted by the nanoparticle film. As expected, the carbamazepine release rate was dependent on the amount of infiltrated/adsorbed nanoparticles into biodegradable porous membrane. DSC studies show molecular dispersion of the drug throughout the membrane.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 12/2008; 371(1-2):177-81. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2008.12.024 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    • "water phase (p < 0.05). The presence of a higher PVA amount in w 2 causes an increase in viscosity of the external water phase, resulting in a reduction in the coalescence of the emulsion droplets and consequently the production of smaller sized microspheres (Cui et al. 2005). SEM micrographs of SF-loaded microspheres (FMS1–FMS6) are presented in Figure 3. Microspheres were found to be spherical in shape and have a smooth surface. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to prepare poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres containing sodium fusidate (SF) using a double emulsion solvent evaporation method with varying polymer:drug ratios (1:1, 2.5:1, 5:1) and to evaluate its efficiency for the local treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. The particle size and distribution, morphological characteristics, thermal behaviour, drug content, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release assessments of the formulations had been carried out. Sterilized SF-PLGA microspheres were implanted in the proximal tibia of rats with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) osteomyelitis. After 3 weeks of treatment, bone samples were analysed with a microbiological assay. PLGA microspheres between the size ranges of 2.16-4.12 microm were obtained. Production yield of all formulations was found to be higher than 79% and encapsulation efficiencies of 19.8-34.3% were obtained. DSC thermogram showed that the SF was in an amorphous state in the microspheres and the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of PLGA was not influenced by the preparation procedure. In vitro drug release studies had indicated that these microspheres had significant burst release and their drug release rates were decreased upon increasing the polymer:drug ratio (p < 0.05). Based on the in vivo data, rats implanted with SF-PLGA microspheres and empty microspheres showed 1987 +/- 1196 and 55526 +/- 49086 colony forming unit of MRSA in 1 g bone samples (CFU/g), respectively (p < 0.01). The in vitro and in vivo studies had shown that the implanted SF loaded microspheres were found to be effective for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in an animal experimental model. Hence, these microspheres may be potentially useful in the clinical setting.
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