Application of satellite infrared data for mapping of thermal plume contamination in coastal ecosystem of Korea.
ABSTRACT The 5900 MW Younggwang nuclear power station on the west coast of Korea discharges warm water affecting coastal ecology [KORDI report (2003). Wide area observation of the impact of the operation of Younggwang nuclear power plant 5 and 6, No. BSPI 319-00-1426-3, KORDI, Seoul, Korea]. Here the spatial and temporal characteristics of the thermal plume signature of warm water are reported from a time series (1985-2003) of space-borne, thermal infrared data from Landsat and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. Sea surface temperature (SST) were characterized using advanced very high resolution radiometer data from the NOAA satellites. These data demonstrated the general pattern and extension of the thermal plume signature in the Younggwang coastal areas. In contrast, the analysis of SST from thematic mapper data using the Landsat-5 and 7 satellites provided enhanced information about the plume shape, dimension and direction of dispersion in these waters. The thermal plume signature was detected from 70 to 100 km to the south of the discharge during the summer monsoon and 50 to 70 km to the northwest during the winter monsoon. The mean detected plume temperature was 28 degrees C in summer and 12 degrees C in winter. The DeltaT varied from 2 to 4 degrees C in winter and 2 degrees C in summer. These values are lower than the re-circulating water temperature (6-9 degrees C). In addition the temperature difference between tidal flats and offshore (SSTtidal flats - SSToffsore) was found to vary from 5.4 to 8.5 degrees C during the flood tides and 3.5 degrees C during the ebb tide. The data also suggest that water heated by direct solar radiation on the tidal flats during the flood tides might have been transported offshore during the ebb tide. Based on these results we suggest that there is an urgent need to protect the health of Younggwang coastal marine ecosystem from the severe thermal impact by the large quantity of warm water discharged from the Younggwang nuclear power plant.
- SourceAvailable from: Steven D GainesMarine Ecology-progress Series - MAR ECOL-PROGR SER. 01/1994; 104:49-62.
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ABSTRACT: The large quattities of marine phytoplankton passing through the cooling systems of two Southern California coastal power plants were found to be greatly reduced in numbers (41.7%) and in volume (33.7%). The biomass killed from June, 1972 to May, 1973 amounted to approximately 1,700 tons of organic carbon. Phytoplankton mortalities were most pronounced from October to December when intake waters of 17 to 20C were subjected to temperature elevations of 9 to 11C, and were lowest from January to March when cooler ambient temperatures prevailed. There was no apparent reduction in phytoplankton stocks when the intake water was cooler than 15C. Surviving cells in 25 and 26.5C effluent waters were growing three times faster than influent populations, which suggests that power-plant effects on phytoplankton stocks are often short-lived. However, entrainment effects appear very disruptive, in changing the structure of phytoplankton communities and in constantly reducing species diversity (H). Passage through the condenser tubes affected algal species differentially, killing diatoms in greater numbers (45.7%) than dinoflagellates (32.8%), and reinforcing the dominance of the two major species, Asterionella japonica and Gonyaulax polyedra, that were the most tolerant. The severity of the impact appears to be controlled by two interacting factors: intake water-temperature and magnitude of temperature increase. On this basis, use by coastal power plants of deep-sea water for cooling is strongly advocated.Marine Biology 10/1975; 33(2):135-146. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) flown on the NOAA series of polar-orbiting environmental satellites have been used to produce operational sea surface temperature (SST) products since January 1979. With the implementation of linear Multichannel SST (MCSST) equations and multichannel cloud screening tests in November 1981, accuracy and resolution improved significantly. Recently (March 1990), accuracy has been improved again with the implementation of nonlinear SST equations. When compared with drifting buoy SST observations, daytime and nighttime satellite SST observations produced from these new equations have global biases less than 0.3°C and standard deviations less than 0.7°C. From a daily global set of approximately 120,000 SST observations at 8 km resolution, series of operational products are produced routinely, some of which are of interest to the climate community.Global and Planetary Change - GLOBAL PLANET CHANGE. 01/1991; 4:173-177.