Influence of dietary carbohydrate and fat on LDL and HDL particle distributions

Department of Atherosclerosis Research, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609, USA.
Current Atherosclerosis Reports (Impact Factor: 3.42). 12/2005; 7(6):455-9. DOI: 10.1007/s11883-005-0062-9
Source: PubMed


Variations in the size and density distributions of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles have been related to risk for cardiovascular disease. In particular, increased levels of small, dense LDL particles, together with reduced levels of large HDL and increases in small HDL, are integral features of the atherogenic dyslipidemia found in patients with insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Increased dietary carbohydrates, particularly simple sugars and starches with high glycemic index, can increase levels of small, dense LDL and HDL, primarily by mechanisms that involve increasing plasma triglyceride concentrations. Low-carbohydrate diets may have the opposite effects. Diets with differing fatty acid composition can also influence LDL and HDL particle distributions.

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    • "The fatty acid composition of beef fat is important as it has implications for human health and is a contributor to eating quality. High levels of saturated fatty acids, particularly medium-chain fatty acids, such as C16:0, have been linked to metabolic syndrome in humans (Vessby, 2003; Siri and Krauss, 2005). Fat composition also impacts eating quality of beef (Wood et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue associated with meat is an important factor for the beef industry because of its implications for human health, processing, meat quality, and palatability. Individual fatty acid composition is a trait under genetic control, so improvement via selective breeding of cattle is possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition and identify genes associated with this trait in 3 breed types: Bos indicus (Brahman), Bos taurus (4 breeds), and tropically adapted composites (2 breeds). Using high-density data, regions on chromosomes 1, 9, 14, 16, 19, 23, 26, 29, and X were associated with fat composition and quantity traits. Known candidate genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN; chromosome 19) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; chromosome 26), were confirmed in our results. Other candidate genes and regions represent novel association results, requiring further validation.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/2014; 92(5):1895-1901. DOI:10.2527/jas.2013-6901 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    • "Alterations in the size and composition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles have been associated with metabolic syndrome [15], and are known to be related to CVD risk [16]. Individuals with altered HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride levels, two components of MetS, are more likely to also have unfavorable changes in the levels of apolipoproteins (apo) A1 and B, the apolipoproteins associated with HDL-C and LDL-C, as well as altered size and composition of these lipoprotein particles [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors is known as metabolic syndrome (MetS). The risk of having MetS is strongly associated with increased adiposity and can be further modified by smoking behavior. Apolipoproteins (apo) associated with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) may be altered in MetS. This study aimed to examine the association between smoking and the following parameters: MetS and its components, levels of apolipoproteins and estimated lipoprotein particle size, separately for men and women, and in different body mass index (BMI) classes. We included 24,389 men and 35,078 women aged between 18 and 80 years who participated in the LifeLines Cohort Study between December 2006 and January 2012; 5,685 men and 6,989 women were current smokers. Participants were categorized into three different body mass index (BMI) classes (BMI <25; BMI 25 to 30; BMI ≥30 kg/m2). MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP:ATPIII) criteria. Blood pressure, anthropometric and lipid measurements were rigorously standardized, and the large sample size enabled a powerful estimate of quantitative changes. The association between smoking and the individual MetS components, and apoA1 and apoB, was tested with linear regression. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of smoking and daily tobacco smoked on risk of having MetS. All models were age adjusted and stratified by sex and BMI class. Prevalence of MetS increased with higher BMI levels. A total of 64% of obese men and 42% of obese women had MetS. Current smoking was associated with a higher risk of MetS in both sexes and all BMI classes (odds ratio 1.7 to 2.4 for men, 1.8 to 2.3 for women, all P values <0.001). Current smokers had lower levels of HDL cholesterol and apoA1, higher levels of triglycerides and apoB, and higher waist circumference than non-smokers (all P <0.001). Smoking had no consistent association with blood pressure or fasting blood glucose. In all BMI classes, we found a dose-dependent association of daily tobacco consumption with MetS prevalence as well as with lower levels of HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and lower ratios of HDL cholesterol/apoA1 and, only in those with BMI <30, LDL cholesterol/apoB (all P <0.001). Smoking is associated with an increased prevalence of MetS, independent of sex and BMI class. This increased risk is mainly related to lower HDL cholesterol, and higher triglycerides and waist circumference. In addition, smoking was associated with unfavorable changes in apoA1 and apoB, and in lipoprotein particle size.Please see related commentary:
    BMC Medicine 09/2013; 11(1):195. DOI:10.1186/1741-7015-11-195 · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    • "blood; Fig. 1). Lipoproteins consist of a single layer of amphipathic phospholipid and cholesterol molecules that surround the non-polar lipids (Siri & Krauss, 2005). Given this simple established system available early in animal evolution, it is surprising that fats from milk are not transferred in the same manner. "
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    ABSTRACT: The biological process of fat globule assembly and secretion produces highly complex globule compositions and structures with many properties now recognized to be the direct result of these structures. During homogenization, fat globules are broken down and subsequently structures and surfaces different than the native state are formed. This process alters the milk fat globule unique macrostructure and the effects associated to their structure would be expected to be lost. In the present overview, the need for continued research of the fundamental aspects of the mechanism involved in milk fat globules synthesis secretion and size distribution, as well as establishing ways to regulate those processes are highlighted. Ultimately these insights will guide food technology to developing a new generation of structure based functional foods and as highlighted in this overview, dairy functional products should be the pioneering commodity.
    Trends in Food Science & Technology 12/2008; 19(12). DOI:10.1016/j.tifs.2008.07.006 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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