A "contract for change" increases produce consumption in low-income women: a pilot study.
ABSTRACT This study determined whether a "Contract for Change" goal-setting exercise enhanced the effectiveness of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education programs to increase produce consumption in low-income (<130% of poverty) women after 4 weeks. Thirty-eight participants were randomized in this three-group parallel arm study: (a) control group participants received life-skills lessons, (b) the education group received the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education "Food Guide Pyramid" lessons, and (c) the contract group also received the "Food Guide Pyramid" series and completed a "Contract for Change." It was hypothesized that the contract group would have the greatest increases in advancement toward dietary change and produce consumption. Compared with controls, the contract group significantly moved toward acceptance of vegetable consumption (P < or = .05). Compared with the education group, the contract group significantly increased fruit consumption. Results suggest that nutrition professionals can effectively use goal-setting to assist low-income populations with dietary change.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Flavonols and flavones are antioxidant polyphenolic compounds found in tea, vegetables, fruits, and wine. In experimental studies they have been effective free radical scavengers, metal chelators, and antithrombotic agents. In the few epidemiologic studies of these agents, some have suggested an inverse association between intake of flavonols and flavones and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Our study population comprised 25,372 male smokers, 50-69 years of age, with no previous myocardial infarction. They were participants of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, which was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with daily supplementation of alpha-tocopherol (50 mg per day) and/or beta-carotene (20 mg per day). The men completed a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline. After 6.1 years of follow-up, there were 1,122 nonfatal myocardial infarctions and 815 coronary deaths. In the multivariate model, the relative risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction was 0.77 (95% confidence interval = 0.64-0.93) among men in the highest (median 18 mg per day) compared with the lowest (median 4 mg per day) quintile of flavonol and flavone intake. The respective relative risk for coronary death was 0.89 (95% confidence interval = 0.71-1.11). Thus, intake of flavonols and flavones was inversely associated with nonfatal myocardial infarction, whereas there was a weaker association with coronary death.Epidemiology 02/2001; 12(1):62-7. · 5.74 Impact Factor
- JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 04/1994; 271(9):660; author reply 660-1. · 29.98 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine whether flavonoid intake explains differences in mortality rates from chronic diseases between populations. DESIGN: Cross-cultural correlation study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen cohorts of the Seven Countries Study in whom flavonoid intake at baseline around 1960 was estimated by flavonoid analysis of equivalent food composites that represented the average diet in the cohorts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from coronary heart disease, cancer (various sites), and all causes in the 16 cohorts after 25 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Average intake of antioxidant flavonoids was inversely associated with mortality from coronary heart disease and explained about 25 f the variance in coronary heart disease rates in the 16 cohorts. In multivariate analysis, intake of saturated fat (73 P = 0.0001), flavonoid intake (8°P = .01), and percentage of smokers per cohort (9 P = .03) explained together, independent of intake of alcohol and antioxidant vitamins, 90 f the variance in coronary heart disease rates. Flavonoid intake was not independently associated with mortality from other causes. CONCLUSIONS: Average flavonoid intake may partly contribute to differences in coronary heart disease mortality across populations, but it does not seem to be an important determinant of cancer mortality.Archives of internal medicine. 155 (1995) 1184. 01/1995;