Randomized trial of prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection by continuous infusion of low-dose unfractionated heparin in patients with hematologic and oncologic disease.
ABSTRACT Infection is a serious complication of central venous catheters in immunocompromised patients. Catheter-related infection may be caused by fibrin deposition associated with catheters. Interventions designed to decrease fibrin deposition have the potential to reduce catheter-related infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of low-dose unfractionated heparin in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection in patients with hemato-oncological disease.
This study was a randomized, controlled trial in which patients with nontunneled catheters were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous unfractionated heparin (continuous infusion of 100 U/kg per day) or 50 mL/day of normal saline solution as a continuous infusion (control group). Heparin was continued until the day of discharge. Catheter-related bloodstream infection was defined according to Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines.
Two hundred and eight patients were randomly assigned. Four patients were excluded after assignment. Ultimately, 204 patients were analyzed. Catheter-related bloodstream infection occurred in 6.8% (7 of 102 catheters) of those in the heparin group (2.5 events per 1,000 days) and in 16.6% (17 of 102 catheters) of those in the control group (6.4 events per 1,000 days) (P = .03). No other risk factors were found for the development of catheter-related bloodstream infection. Four and five patients experienced severe bleeding in the heparin and control groups, respectively (P = .2). We did not observe heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
The use of continuous infusion of low-dose unfractionated heparin (100 U/kg per day) can be a practical and economical approach to the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection in patients with hemato-oncological disease.
- SourceAvailable from: Anna Czyż[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) is a serious complication in hematological patients, but the risk factors for its occurrence are not well established. The study objectives were to estimate the incidence of CRT and to identify the risk factors for developing CRT in hematological patients. In a prospective setting, 104 consecutive patients with 200 insertions of central venous catheters were enrolled into the study. The patients were screened for CRT by compression Doppler ultrasound every 10-14 days. Additionally, ultrasonography was performed in the case of clinical symptoms suggesting CRT. Over the course of 6,098 catheter days of follow-up, the incidence of CRT was 13.5 %. In 18/27 cases (66.6 %), radiological evidence of CRT was preceded by clinical symptoms. However, in 9/27 (33.3 %), CRT was clinically asymptomatic. The median times to symptomatic and asymptomatic CRT were 17 (range 1-49) and 8 (range 1-16) catheter days, respectively. In univariate analysis, the risk factors for CRT were exit-site infection (ESI) (P < 0.001), two or more prior chemotherapy lines (P = 0.015), catheter-related blood stream infection (P < 0.001), and Coagulase-negative staphylococci infection (P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, ESI (OR 5.0; 95 % CI 1.6-6.3; P = 0.006) and two or more prior chemotherapy lines (OR 3.57; 95 % CI 1.27-10.11; P = 0.015) remained significantly associated with the risk of CRT. The results of our study provide information regarding the characteristic features of the patients who are at high risk of thrombosis, for whom Doppler ultrasound screening should be considered.Medical Oncology 01/2014; 31(1):772. · 2.06 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Central venous catheter (CVC)-related thrombosis and infections are frequently occurring complications in patients with hematological malignancies. At present, heparin is most often used as a locking solution. Trisodium citrate (TSC) had been shown to be a very effective antimicrobial catheter locking in hemodialysis patients. We performed a prospective randomized phase III multicenter trial to determine the efficacy of TSC as a locking solution compared to heparin in preventing CVC-related thrombosis and infections in patients with hematological malignancies.Supportive Care Cancer 06/2014; · 2.50 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) impact patient outcomes and increase cost of hospitalization. In situ thrombus is known to promote microbial adhesion and colonization and potentially lead to CLABSI. Clinical validation of this theory, adjusting for presence of systemic hypercoagulability, is needed. Methods This study is a retrospective review of all adult and pediatric patients with peripherally inserted central catheter placement over a 4-year period at our tertiary care center. Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) use was utilized as indicator for line site thrombus. CLABSIs rates were compared in patients with or without TPA use, adjusting for the presence of hypercoagulable conditions, age, and severity of illness. Results A total of 3,723 patients with peripherally inserted central catheter lines was evaluated, 40% of whom received TPA. The adjusted odds of developing a CLABSI was 3.59 times greater in those patients who received TPA compared with those who did not (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86-6.94). Neither severity of illness (odds ratio [OR], 1.00; 95% CI: 0.51-1.96) nor primary (OR, 3.41; 95% CI: 0.43-26.7) or secondary hypercoagulability (OR, 0.91; 95% CI: 0.44-1.88) were statistically associated with a higher risk of infection. Conclusion The use of TPA, as a possible indicator in situ thrombus, was associated with a higher risk of developing CLABSI. Neither primary nor secondary hypercoagulability was correlated with risk of developing CLABSI.American journal of infection control 04/2014; · 3.01 Impact Factor