Randomized trial of prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection by continuous infusion of low-dose unfractionated heparin in patients with hematologic and oncologic disease.
ABSTRACT Infection is a serious complication of central venous catheters in immunocompromised patients. Catheter-related infection may be caused by fibrin deposition associated with catheters. Interventions designed to decrease fibrin deposition have the potential to reduce catheter-related infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of low-dose unfractionated heparin in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection in patients with hemato-oncological disease.
This study was a randomized, controlled trial in which patients with nontunneled catheters were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous unfractionated heparin (continuous infusion of 100 U/kg per day) or 50 mL/day of normal saline solution as a continuous infusion (control group). Heparin was continued until the day of discharge. Catheter-related bloodstream infection was defined according to Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines.
Two hundred and eight patients were randomly assigned. Four patients were excluded after assignment. Ultimately, 204 patients were analyzed. Catheter-related bloodstream infection occurred in 6.8% (7 of 102 catheters) of those in the heparin group (2.5 events per 1,000 days) and in 16.6% (17 of 102 catheters) of those in the control group (6.4 events per 1,000 days) (P = .03). No other risk factors were found for the development of catheter-related bloodstream infection. Four and five patients experienced severe bleeding in the heparin and control groups, respectively (P = .2). We did not observe heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
The use of continuous infusion of low-dose unfractionated heparin (100 U/kg per day) can be a practical and economical approach to the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection in patients with hemato-oncological disease.
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ABSTRACT: Central venous catheters (CVC) related thrombosis (CRT) represents a well known complication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) receiving intensive chemotherapy but the efficacy of antithrombotic prophylaxis still remains controversial. We analyzed 71 consecutive AML patients whose CVC was inserted before each chemotherapy cycle for an overall number of 106 CVC placements. In 47/106 insertions, a prophylaxis with 100IU/kg/day low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was administered for 7days after CVC insertion and additional 7 after CVC removal. This unconventional dose of LMWH, although higher than usual, appeared adequate for a short-course approach. LMWH was delivered regardless of the platelet (PLT) count once provided that it should have been maintained above 20x10(9)/L by transfusions. Of 106 insertions, we observed 19 (18%) episodes of CRT, 58 (54%) of sepsis and 50 (47%) infections of CVC-exit site with no difference between LMWH and no-LMWH group. Occurrence of CRT was significantly associated with CVC-exit site infections (14/19, p=0.01) and sepsis (16/19, p=0.005) with no difference between LMWH and no-LMWH group. In multivariate analysis, both CVC-exit site infections and sepsis were confirmed to be independent risk factors for CRT development. Our retrospective study, although based on a small sample size, suggests that the occurrence of CVC-exit site infections and neutropenic sepsis following chemotherapy significantly increases the risk of CRT in AML, independently from the use of LMWH prophylaxis.Thrombosis Research 08/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several million catheters are annually placed in the United States and worldwide for a multitude of clinical conditions. Potential delayed complications relating to central venous catheters include infections, thrombosis and fibrin sheath formation. Fibrin sheaths form frequently around central catheters but seldom cause clinical symptoms by themselves that warrant further investigation. It is likely that with the advent of echocardiographic imaging techniques, these "sleeves" get detected more often, which may result in early and correct diagnosis of this potential hazardous condition. Retained fibrin sleeves can cause malfunction of indwelling catheters, can persist after removal of the catheter, and be a nidus for thrombus formation or vegetation with a potential for distal embolization. Future research directed at creating new coatings with cytotoxic or cytostatic agents is warranted to reduce the incidence of fibrin sheath formation and hence prevent potential complications. We report three cases of persistent fibrin sheaths forming at the site of previously inserted tunneled catheters two of which were complicated by thrombus formation and vegetations.Echocardiography 11/2011; 29(3):E56-9. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are essential in the management of pediatric patients receiving antineoplastic therapy or bone marrow transplants, and have significantly improved their quality of life, but CVC-related infectious complications are a major source of morbidity. It has been estimated that 14-51 % of the CVCs implanted in children with malignancies may be complicated by bacteremia, and that the incidence of infections is 1.4-1.9 episodes per 1,000 CVC days. However, there are few recent data concerning the epidemiology of CVC-related infections, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in their etiology, or the main factors associated with an increased risk of infection by type of catheter, patient age, the type of cancer, or the presence of neutropenia. Moreover, although various new strategies have been proposed in an attempt to reduce the risk of CVC-related infections, such as catheters impregnated with antiseptics/antibiotics, lock antibiotic prophylaxis, the use of ointments at the exit site, and antithrombotic prophylaxis, their real efficacy in children has not yet been demonstrated. The management of CVC-related infections remains difficult, mainly because of the number of still open questions (including the choice of optimal antimicrobial therapy because of the increasing isolation of multiresistant bacterial strains, treatment duration, whether catheters should be removed or not, the feasibility of guidewire exchange, and the usefulness of antibiotic lock therapy) and the lack of studies of children with cancer. Only well-designed, prospective clinical trials involving pediatric cancer patients can clarify optimal prevention and treatment strategies for CVC-related infections in this population.European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 06/2012; 31(11):2869-77. · 3.02 Impact Factor