Breast cancer trends among black and white women in the United States

Department of Surgery , Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 베서스다, Maryland, United States
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 17.88). 12/2005; 23(31):7836-41. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2004.01.0421
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Overall US breast cancer mortality rates are higher among black women than white women, and the disparity is widening. To investigate this disparity, we examined incidence data and changes in mortality trends according to age, year of death (calendar period), and date of birth (birth cohort). Calendar period mortality trends reflect the effects of new medical interventions, whereas birth cohort mortality trends reflect alterations in risk factors.
Incidence data were obtained from the Connecticut and National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries and mortality data were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Changes in age, period, and cohort mortality trends were analyzed with Poisson regression.
For both races, breast cancer incidence rates for localized and regional disease diverged in the late 1970s. Almost concurrently, overall mortality rates diverged among blacks and whites. For both races, mortality increases with age, but blacks have higher mortality at age younger than 57. The calendar period curves revealed declining mortality for whites over the entire study period. For blacks, calendar period mortality declined until the late 1970s, and then sharply increased. After 1994, calendar period mortality declined for both. For women born between 1872 and 1950, trends in mortality were similar for blacks and whites. For women born after 1950, mortality decreased more rapidly for blacks.
The widening racial disparity in breast cancer mortality seems attributable to calendar period rather than birth cohort effects. Thus, differences in response or access to newer medical interventions may largely account for these trends.

  • Source
    Dataset: Brca2010
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have identified differences in gene mutations among endometrial cancers from Whites and Blacks suggesting that differences in tumor biology may explain racial disparities in patient outcome. Micro RNAs (miRNA) have emerged as regulators of transcript expression and their aberrant expression have been discovered in many diseases, including endometrial cancer. We performed quantitative PCR-based analysis in a set of endometrial cancers to identify whether there are racial differences in miRNA expression.
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2014.08.028 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Analysis, precise interpretation and forecasting of incidence and mortality rates are very important aspects in epidemiology and demography. The purpose of this study is to apply two different methodologies, namely the FTS (functional time series) models and APC (age-period-cohort) models on a single data set. We intend to compare the results obtained and to see the performances of these two approaches. We used FTS models on age-specific incidence rates taking age as a continuous function that is varying by time. Here we examined the age variations by using FPC (functional principal component) analysis. We also obtained the forecast of the entire incidence curve. Then we applied the APC models on the same data where we explored the age, period and cohort effects separately. We illustrated these approaches by using lung cancer incidence rates for males in Denmark, obtained from R-package “Epi” available on CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network). It was found that there was a rapid increase in lung cancer incidence rates in Denmark since 1960, and the highest rates were seen in the year 1985. After that, the rates started to level off. A continuous increment was also found in incidence rates since 1958 birth cohorts. These rates stabilized in 1905 and started decreasing since 1925. The first four basis functions of the FTS model explained about 98.5%, 1.2%, 0.2%, and 0.1% of the total variation, respectively. We also obtained 20-year predictions and suggested that future trends for the male lung cancer incidence rates in Denmark will decrease in all ages.